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Anthony Final Exam Latin America (student created)
Terms in this set (245)
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Incas
First president of Brazil
Inca tool for keeping records involving knotted cords
mountains in which the Incas lived
major religion brought to the New World
most devastating disease in the New World
civilization with elaborate calendar systems; predicted the end of the world
God most worshipped by early Latin American peoples
Spanish-American war resulted in the US taking temporary control of this country
individual born in the New World from Spanish heritage
la leyenda negra / the Black Legend
stories about how the Spanish treated the natives
great leader of the Aztecs
European power who controlled Saint Domingue
main city of the Aztecs
Economic system where European countries used overseas colonies to supply them with raw materials for finished goods
people of mixed race, usually Spanish and Native
Toussaint L'oveurture led a massive slave revolt here
God Glory Gold
Imperial G Trifecta
Bartolome de las Casas
bishop who argued that the Spanish shouldn't mistreat the natives and should use African slaves instead
priest who led initial uprisings in Mexico against the Spanish
archaeological site of the Mayan culture
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs
cross-trade of agricultural products, livestock, and disesae between the old and new world
plantation-like system where Spanish officials were granted land that was worked by natives
Location of a canal that linked the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Jose de San Martin
liberator of Chile and contemporary of Bolivar
Aztec floating garden system
one of the oldest civilizations in Mesoamerica; gigantic stone heads
native Spanish people who were living in the New World
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty that divided up the world between Spain and Portugal
Located near present day Peru
chief god was Inti
all civilizations (Olmec, Aztec, Inca, Maya)
human sacrifices, worshiped nature and its gods, polytheistic, elaborate calendar systems
elaborate road system with messenger runners (chasqui)
Aztec, Maya, Olmec
located in present-day Mexico
textiles prized and used as currency
destroyed by drought, over-population, deforestation
discovered hot chocolate, chewing gum, and popcorn
When did the Olmecs decline?
When did the Aztecs decline?
When did the Incas decline?
When did the Mayas decline?
built paved roads, bridges
made an accounting system
great architecture b/c buildings still around today
art had geometric designs
lots of textiles and ceramics
made jewelry, decorations, plates, bowls etc. (art)
traded metalwork with the Europeans
located in the andes region
four regions each ruled by governor w/ king
~1200 AD- 1572 AD
Manco Capac helped the fall of this civilization
1533- spanish arrive
believed in gods w/ 6 main ones
daily sacrifices of animals
humans were never sacrificed
Huacas=another word for temples
Francisco pizarro conquered this civilization
llamas were sacred
machu picchu was built during this civilization
made school mandatory for all children
created hot chocolate
used a number system
art expressed through music, poetry, sculptures
wealthy people were jewelry and feathers as a sign of status
used pottery to build relations with nations
melted metalwork to make into money
located in modern day mexico city
1519 spanish arrive
created a sophisticated transportation system
no gods have names
three main gods -----> four sub gods -----> infinity gods
predicted the end of the world
lots of human sacrifices
population decreased b/c too many sacrifices
spanish conquered b/c capital city captured, no supplies for aztecs, had better weapons, brough small pox
monarchy w/ all cities being tribute cities
artists used metaphors
had irrigation, plazas, sports fields
also had calendar (not aztec)
had reservoir for drinking water
had a written language
had the concept of zero
had laws w/ trials and punishments
art expressed through sculptures, masks, mosaics, murals, pottery, carvings, and weavings
~2 million to 3 million people lived in the civilization
located in Central America
had a lot of limestone which they used to build their temples
gods had earthly jobs and had a human's life cycle
had human sacrifices
divorce and homosexuality were socially accepted
example of temples: el castillo
temples made of limestone and painted
not known why this civilization declined
900 AD spanish arrived
possibly declined b/c overpopulation and no resources
possible declined b/c massive drought
possibly declined b/c civil war
three major cities: la venta, san lorenzo, and laguna de los cerros
la venta (olmec)
costal city w/ cocoa and rubber
san lorenzo (olmec)
central city w/ floodplains and river trade
laguna de los cerros
city in mountains w/ basalt
~1600- 1500 BCE
lots of agriculture
first civilization in west hemisphere to create writing system
first civilization to develop long count calendars
religion- rain, earth, sky, underworld
worshipped animals like sharks, eagles, and jaguars
had shamans and priests
ruler had a direct line to the gods
art was religious or political
art consisted of woodcarvings, cave paintings, and colossal heads
had huge head busts of kings or rulers made from wood or basalt
decline not known. people stopped practicing culture
~ 400- 350 BCE
still descendants today
Really bad guy who was looking for India and found the Americas instead. Got the Spanish royals to sign off on his voyage. Didn't treat the natives very well.
Spanish guy who overthrew the Aztecs by allying with the other natives who didn't like the Aztecs. At first the Aztecs were winning against the Spanish, but that changed and this guy became the governor of the Aztecs or "New Spain."
This guy conquered the Incas. He founded Lima (Peru). There was this fight for power between this guy and another guy, and the first guy won!! However, he was assassinated by the supporters of the guy he defeated.
This guy wanted to discover a new route to the Spice Islands. Became the European to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Went around the entire globe, proving it Earth is round and you can sail on it
There was oppressive labor, disruption of food supply, deliberate extermination, disease
What was impacted by the European discovery of the New World on the Americas?
To portray the Spanish as corrupt and cruel and to make the other Europeans look better
What was the purpose of the "Black Legend"?
Proposed they used slaves from Africa as labor instead of Native Americans
What was Bishop de las Casas' response to this legend?
Enlisted runaway slaves to prey on the Spanish. They also sold slaves to the Spanish
How did the English capitalize on this legend?
peanut, potato, tomato, Sugar, coffee, rice
what were 3 food crops taken to europe from the new world?
What was one non-food product taken to Europe from the New World?
Wheat, oats, barley
What were three food products taken to the New World by the Europeans?
~2 million Native Americans when Columbus arrived
~20 million Mexicans
Compare the number of people in North and South America compared to the number in Mexico when the Europeans arrived.
Gold, Glory, Gold. They had advanced technology and managed to rally local tribes
Cortes were after the "Imperial G Trifecta." What is that? How did a few hundred men manage to accomplish that goal?
Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro
Who is dubbed the "Conquistadors of Chaos?"
It was beneficial for Europeans more than the Native Americans. However, a lot of cultures were destroyed
Briefly explain your opinion on this question: "Has the discovery of America been beneficial or harmful to the human race?"
they robbed the spanish for silver in order to make money
what is the french colony's link to the silver trade?
the french used the money from silver to create sugar plantations. they provided 40% of europe's sugar.
what is the french colony's link to the sugar trade?
mostly female slaves
slaves were imported every year on an increasing scale (40,000+)
eventually there were more slaves than the white population
90% of the population were slaves
most of the slaves were african born because there were such brutal conditions that natural population growth could not occur
describe slavery in saint domingue
yellow fever, smallpox, miserable working conidtions
how did so many slaves die?
usually in france with connections to haiti
made their agents do all the brutality
rich aristocrats who owned land
who were the grand blanc social group in haiti?
served in militia
owned plantations and slaves
who were the freed people social group in haiti?
the petit blanc were artisans and laborers
white people born in haiti
who were the petit blanc social group in haiti?
overwhelming majority, looked down upon by everyone
who were the slaves social group in haiti?
they gave hope to free people of color and slaves
gave them confidence to revolt
how does the french declaration of the rights of man and citizen influence the haitian revolution?
the french were already fighting the british and the spanish and did not want to fight slaves too, so they ended the problem
why did the french decide the free the slaves?
the plantation system continued because ouverture thought sugar was vital to the economy
it was not slavery technically because no one controlled the trading of people (foxconn like conditions)
explain the plantation system after the end of slavery
napoleon needed money from the island to build an empire, so he wanted to reintroduce slavery
how did saint domingue figure into napoleon's plans to reconstruct france's north american empire?
haiti stood up against slavery
the second free and independent nation state in the americas
most successful slave revolts ever
first nation to be governed by people of african descent
why is haiti's revolutionary history unique and important to us?
the spanish/portuguese crown, the catholic church, patriarchy
who controlled latin american society before the revolution?
trans culturation = cultural blending
what did latin america lead the world in?
white people from europe
who were the peninsulares?
white people born in the americas
who were the creoles?
white, black, mestizo, and mulattoes
what were the four basic racial categories in latin america?
native american + white
what are mestizos?
what are mulattoes?
white + black
what percentage of people in latin america were mixed race in 1800?
how was brazil different from other latin american countries?
ruled by portugal
how was brazil similar to other latin american countries?
lots of discourse, napolean wanted to interfere, creoles wanted to maintain their privilege, conservative
how did brazil gain its independence from portugal?
brazilian party to lobby for independence
prince pedro was left by his dad and decided to join the independence movement
he convinced his father and got it to happen
where did latin american independence movements begin?
who led the peasant uprising in mexico?
who declared independence in mexico in 1813?
which general became king of mexico in 1822?
what was the latin american position in the mexican-american war?
mexico wanted texas back
wanted to protect california and new mexico from the united states
united states wanted california and new mexico because of manifest destiny
what was the united states position in the mexican-american war?
what were the outcomes/effects of the mexican-american war?
the united states won california and new mexico
mexico was weakened and shrunk
mexico got some cash and got rid of their debt to america
what was the latin american position on the panama canal?
colombia was originally cooperative
when panama was fighting for its independence, the us supported panama
columbia stopped the construction of the panama canal until panama received independence
panama allowed construction to continue until the canal was completed
later they decided they wanted to keep the canal and forced the us to give it back
what was the united states position on the panama canal?
the us wanted access to the atlantic and pacific for trading
the canal would cut 8000 miles off of their journey
they backed panama for negotiations and were able to receive the canal after panama gained independence
however, they were forced to give it back and waited till the last day before the deadline
what were the outcomes/effects of the panama canal?
panama canal is completed
us could trade faster for some time
panama felt manipulated by the us during wwii
panama canal was returned to us
what was the latin-american position on the spanish-american war?
cuba wanted independence for spain
spain did not want cuba to leave
what was the united states position on the spanish-american war?
us supported cuba because they felt empathy due to their similar situations
spanish "sunk" a us boat and the us became angry
what were the outcomes/effects of the spanish-american war?
us received control of cuba
us ceded puerto rico, guam, and the philippines
spanish empire collapsed
what was the latin-american position on the roosevelt corollary?
latin america needed us help due to their vulnerability to european attack, but they resented the idea
roosevelt added his own clause to the monroe doctrine because he wanted to ensure that europe would not invade the americas
they created spheres of influence in latin america
what was the american position on the roosevelt corollary?
what was the effects/outcomes of the roosevelt corollary?
united states continue to interfere in latin american affairs today
us helped some countries
latin america does not like the us anymore because of our "yankee imperialism"
us has an undisputed sphere of influence throughout the hemisphere
they needed to boost the economy
used the usa to do so
what was the latin american position on banana republics?
what was the united states position on banana republics?
the united states wanted to grow fruit but couldn't on our land, so they went to central america
what were the outcomes/effects of the banana republics?
usa influence on politics in latin america
usa gets fruit
some latin american economies completely reliant on our economy
cocaine smuggling due to the connection between us and latin america
violence and corruption
what was impacted by the european discovery of the new world on the americas?
the native populations decreased dramatically due to smallpox and a lot of cultural diffusion occurred
explain the purpose of the black legend
to damage spain's reputation
what was bishop de las casas' response to the black legend?
bishop condemned mistreatment of indians and encouraged african slavery
it gave the english justification to take land from spain/the new world and attack their ships
how did the english capitalize on the black legend?
how did a few hundred men overpower south america and mexico?
they overpowered the natives with help from local tribes and disease
who is dubbed the "conquistadors of chaos?"
the portuguese and the spanish
what is the encomienda system?
thinly masked slavery put in place in several areas, mainly peru
prominent spaniards given control over native communities
native americans provided labor and tribute and spaniards provided protection and education
they needed to reward the conquistadors and establish a system of governance, the encomienda system killed two birds with one stone
why did the spanish agree to instate the encomienda system in latin america?
describe encomiendas in peru
encomenderos showed indifference to the suffering of the families that they had virtually enslaves
the quotas did not change even when crops failed or disasters struck
if a native did not reach their quota they were met with lethal punishment at the hands of the overseers
awful working conditions (in the mines with only a candle)
describe the administration of the encomiendas
the encomenderos were never supposed to visit the lands of the encomienda
encomienda had to walk miles to deliver their tribute and local land owners often demanded tribute as well
the priests lived on the land with the encomienda and defended the people but also committed violent acts of their own
who reformed the encomienda system and why?
rumors were spreading in spain about the horrors in the new world
the crown tried to claim that the natives were not slaves but spanish subjects with certain rights
reformers like bartolomé de las casas threatened spain with eternal damnation if they continued to be involved in the enterprise
eventually, charles v of spain relented and passed "the new laws"
a series of royal ordinances designed to halt the abuses of the encomienda system
natives could not be forced if they did not want to
reasonable tribute had to be established and any additional work was to be paid for
no new encomiendas are to be established
anyone who abused natives would lose their encomiendas
what were "the new laws?"
describe the rebellion against the new laws
the colonial elite were furious with the king
they wanted to have permanent encomiendas that they could pass down to their children
the king always resisted
the new laws removed all hope of this ever happening, and they took away encomiendas from many conquistadors
gonzalo pizarro rallied all of the angry elite and started a rebellion
he ruled peru for two years before being overthrown and killed
there was a second rebellion that was squashed
Earned the title "The Liberator"
1783- 1830 in Venezuela
Helped establish the First Venezuelan Republic and distinguished himself as a charismatic leader for the patriot side
Fought the Spanish in multiple battles from Venezuela to Peru, scoring some of the most important victories in the War of Independence.
Was a first-rate military mastermind who is still studied by officers today all over the world.
After Independence, he attempted to use his influence to unify South America but lived to see his dream of unity crushed by petty politicians and warlords.
He was a parish priest in his 50's and a skilled theologian.
Took to the pulpit in the town of Dolores, announced his intention to take up arms against the Spanish, and invited the congregation to join him.
Marched to Mexico City, sacking the city of Guanajuato along the way. Co-conspirator Ignacio Allende
Captured, tried, and executed. Considered Father of Mexican Independence
Jose de San Martin
Jose de San Martin
A promising officer in the Spanish army when he defected to join the patriot cause in Argentina
Jose de San Martin
Lived in Spain and joined Spanish army. Discarded career and went to Argentina where he offered his services
Jose de San Martin
1817 crossed into Chile with the Army of the Andes. After Chile, Peru, then deferred to the generalship of Bolivar to finish South America
Dom Pedro I
Dom Pedro I
The first emperor of Brazil and also ______ ________ IV, King of Portugal
Dom Pedro I
Also nicknamed "The Liberator"
Dom Pedro I
Declared Brazil independent from Portugal in 1822. Set himself as Emperor of Brazil
Dom Pedro I
Returned to Portugal to claim the crown when his father died and left his son to rule Brazil.
Toussaint L' Ouverture
Toussaint L' Ouverture
Led the only triumphant mass slave revolt in history.
Toussaint L' Ouverture
Thanks to him, Haiti won their independence
______ has institutional racism, political corruption, poverty, and natural disaster. (Not person)
Toussaint L' Ouverture
Inspired John Brown and many African nations to fight for independence
Fidel Castro country
Juan Peron country
Hugo Chavez country
Rafael Trujillo country
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna country
Prime minister then president of Cuba. Communist
Wife= Eva. Minister of Labor, then Vice President, then President of Argentina.
Was the president of Venezuela
Nickname: El Jefe. Was president of Dominican Republic, then military leader under figurehead presidents
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Nickname: Napoleon of the West. Fought for Mexican independence. Served 11 terms as president
Cuban Missile Crisis
13 days long. Cuba allowed the Soviets to put nuclear missiles in Cuba pointed at the U.S. Kennedy told Cuba and the Soviets the U.S. was ready for war. Then the Soviets were like "we'll remove our bombs if you don't invade Cuba." and the U.S. was like "m'kay."
From Argentina. Communist, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution
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