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how close a series of measurements are to one another


How close to your target you are/ how close your measurement comes to the actual measurement

Speed formula

Speed = Distance/Time


the amount of space between two points


a change in velocity (in other words, a change in speed or direction)


the speed of an object in a particular direction


the shortest, straight line between where an object begins its motion and the place where it comes to rest


any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space.

Transverse Waves

Moves at right angles to the direction of the waves movement

Longitudinal Waves

a wave that moves the medium parallel to the direction in which the wave travels


the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion


the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time


the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave


the degree of inclination or slope; angle


The height of the wave


Electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye.


A type of longitudinal wave that originates as the vibration of a medium as it travels through gases, liquids, and elastic solids


A substance that makes possible the transfer of energy from one location to another, especially through waves.

Doppler Effect

Perceived change in frequency due to either motion of the source or motion of the observer

Electromagnetic Spectrum

the complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency

Intensity (sound and light)

Sound:the average rate at which sound energy is transmitted

Light:The amount of energy given off by a light


the action of a wave bouncing off an object
Rough: Light bounces off and is reemitted in many different directions
Smooth: Light is scattered back at same angle as original wave

Converging Lens

lens that bends light rays together, toward the focal point

Diverging Lens

a type of lens that bends light away from the focal point.

Angle of incident

The angle of the incoming ray of light before it is refracted or reflected


energy is absorbed


energy is released

Atomic number

the number of protons in an atom

Atomic mass

the average mass of one atom of an element
When atomic number is subtracted from it, you are left with the number of neutrons

Covalent Bonds

forms when electrons are shared between atoms

Ionic bonds

the bonds formed when charged particles attract each other

Valence electrons

an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties


atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons


electrically charged atoms

Energy forms

gravitational energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, elastic energy, electrical(electromagnetic) energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy

Law of Conservation of Energy

the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

Kinetic energy

Energy in motion

Potential energy

stored energy


the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching

States of matter

Solid, liquid, and gas

Phase changes

A type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition.


pH is lower than 7. Main part of an acid is Hydrogen. Properties are sour taste, reactivity with metals and ability to produce color changes.


pH is higher than 7. Produces hydroxide ions. Properties include bitter taste, slippery feel, and ability to produce color changes.


a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. Acidic levels.

Circular motion

Type of motion where velocity is constantly changing because direction is continuously changing. Motion that goes in a circle.

Newton's First law of Motion

An object at rest will stay at rest and and object in uniform motion will remain in uniform motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. (inertia)

Newton's Second law of Motion

The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration. F=ma

Newton's Third law of Motion

For every action is an equal and opposite reaction. Action/Reaction pair.

Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation

any two objects exert a gravitational force of attraction on each other


arrows drawn on a force diagram to represent location, magnitude, and direction of a force


energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor

Parallel Circuits

electric circuits with two or more paths through which charge can flow

Series Circuits

when charge has only one path through which it can flow

Open Circuit

an incomplete electrical circuit in which no current flows

Closed Circuit

a complete electrical circuit around which current flows

Centripetal Motion

a force directed toward the center of the circle for an object moving in a circular motion.

Centrifugal Motion

Fictitious force, peculiar to circular motion, that is equal but opposite to the centripetal force that keeps a particle on a circular path

Make up of an Atom

protons and neutrons and electrons

Simple Binary Compounds

materials/substances that exhibit only one type of strong chemical bond: metallic, ionic or covalent.

Scientific Inquiry/method

A series of steps that scientists use to answer possible questions and solve problem.

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