60 terms

# Physical Science exam

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Precision
how close a series of measurements are to one another
Accuracy
How close to your target you are/ how close your measurement comes to the actual measurement
Speed formula
Speed = Distance/Time
Distance
the amount of space between two points
Acceleration
a change in velocity (in other words, a change in speed or direction)
Velocity
the speed of an object in a particular direction
Displacement
the shortest, straight line between where an object begins its motion and the place where it comes to rest
Waves
any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space.
Transverse Waves
Moves at right angles to the direction of the waves movement
Longitudinal Waves
a wave that moves the medium parallel to the direction in which the wave travels
Inertia
the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Frequency
the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
Wavelength
the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave
Pitch
the degree of inclination or slope; angle
Amplitude
The height of the wave
Light
Electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye.
Sound
A type of longitudinal wave that originates as the vibration of a medium as it travels through gases, liquids, and elastic solids
Medium
A substance that makes possible the transfer of energy from one location to another, especially through waves.
Doppler Effect
Perceived change in frequency due to either motion of the source or motion of the observer
Electromagnetic Spectrum
the complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency
Intensity (sound and light)
Sound:the average rate at which sound energy is transmitted

Light:The amount of energy given off by a light
Reflection
the action of a wave bouncing off an object
Rough: Light bounces off and is reemitted in many different directions
Smooth: Light is scattered back at same angle as original wave
Converging Lens
lens that bends light rays together, toward the focal point
Diverging Lens
a type of lens that bends light away from the focal point.
Angle of incident
The angle of the incoming ray of light before it is refracted or reflected
Endothermic
energy is absorbed
Exothermic
energy is released
Atomic number
the number of protons in an atom
Atomic mass
the average mass of one atom of an element
When atomic number is subtracted from it, you are left with the number of neutrons
Covalent Bonds
forms when electrons are shared between atoms
Ionic bonds
the bonds formed when charged particles attract each other
Valence electrons
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons
Ions
electrically charged atoms
Energy forms
gravitational energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, elastic energy, electrical(electromagnetic) energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy
Law of Conservation of Energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Kinetic energy
Energy in motion
Potential energy
stored energy
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
States of matter
Solid, liquid, and gas
Phase changes
A type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition.
Acids
pH is lower than 7. Main part of an acid is Hydrogen. Properties are sour taste, reactivity with metals and ability to produce color changes.
Bases
pH is higher than 7. Produces hydroxide ions. Properties include bitter taste, slippery feel, and ability to produce color changes.
pH
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. Acidic levels.
Circular motion
Type of motion where velocity is constantly changing because direction is continuously changing. Motion that goes in a circle.
Newton's First law of Motion
An object at rest will stay at rest and and object in uniform motion will remain in uniform motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. (inertia)
Newton's Second law of Motion
The force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration. F=ma
Newton's Third law of Motion
For every action is an equal and opposite reaction. Action/Reaction pair.
Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
any two objects exert a gravitational force of attraction on each other
Vectors
arrows drawn on a force diagram to represent location, magnitude, and direction of a force
Electricity
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
Parallel Circuits
electric circuits with two or more paths through which charge can flow
Series Circuits
when charge has only one path through which it can flow
Open Circuit
an incomplete electrical circuit in which no current flows
Closed Circuit
a complete electrical circuit around which current flows
Centripetal Motion
a force directed toward the center of the circle for an object moving in a circular motion.
Centrifugal Motion
Fictitious force, peculiar to circular motion, that is equal but opposite to the centripetal force that keeps a particle on a circular path
Make up of an Atom
protons and neutrons and electrons
Simple Binary Compounds
materials/substances that exhibit only one type of strong chemical bond: metallic, ionic or covalent.
Scientific Inquiry/method
A series of steps that scientists use to answer possible questions and solve problem.