AP GOV FINAL
Terms in this set (40)
Voting Rights Act Of 1965
- signed by Johnson during the civil rights
- eliminated literacy test (etc)
- authorized federal registrars to protect African Americans right to vote in the south
Judiciary Act of 1789
- legislation passed by Congress that created the federal court system
- made different courts
- set Supreme Court justices to 6
- gives court's original jurisdiction
- established federal district courts
- congress said Supreme Court can't have original jurisdiction (unconstitutional)
Federal Election Campaign Act Of 1974
- Created the Federal Election Commission.
- Tightened reporting requirements for campaign contributions.
- Provided full public financing for major party candidates in the general election.
- Limits contributions to federal candidates
- Regulates campaign spending/funding
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
-Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution's supremacy clause.
-The Court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers
-Establishes implied powers
New York Times v. US 1971
-The Court ruled that freedom of the press is protected, and prior restraint of the press is illegal.
-NYT released private government info to the public
-Government censorship is unconstitutional
Roe v. Wade (1973)
-Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the 14th amendment
-Abortion is legal
-14th amendment says that states can't deprive a person of life liberty or property w/o due process
-Due Process: states must respect all legal rights that are owned to a person
U.S. v. Lopez (1995)
-Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce (unconstitutional)
-Commerce Clause says Congress can regulate commerce
-written by Alexander Hamilton; talks about the federal judiciary; judiciary must depend on other two branches to uphold its decisions
-judiciary would be the weakest
-federal judges should have life tenure
-Judicial Review: review by the Supreme Court
-checks & balances
- Madison argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist.
-Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
-republic over factions
-Separation of powers & checks & balances protects against tyranny
-written by Madison
-each branch should be self sufficient but still have power over the other branches
Articles of Confederation
-weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War
-gave government limited power
-no more need for it after Shays Rebellion: government couldn't dispatch troops to stop the rebellion bc they had no power
- extended civil rights to freedmen and prohibited states from taking those rights without due process
- citizenship and equal protection
- used in ROE V WADE
-due process: prohibits government from depriving a person of life liberty or property
-equal protection clause: state can't deny any person within its jurisdiction of equal rights/ protection
-gave women the right to vote
-used in LESER V GARNETT
-limits presidents term to 2 terms of 4 years
Article 2 Section 1-3
-talks abt the President and his powers
-President is commander in chief of the military
-can appoint cabinet members and ask for their opinions
-can pardon anyone from jail (most famous pardon was Nixon after Watergate Scandal)
-can sign treaties but needs 2/3 of senate approval
-can appoint Supreme Court justices
-has to say/write State if the Union Address
-can receive ambassadors
-can convene and adjourn Congress
-can be convicted of treason, bribery, or other crimes
Article 1 Section 9 (Congress)
Powers denied to Congress
-no bill of attainder
-no post facto laws
-no ban on solve trade (before 1808)
-no direct tax/ import tax
-no nobility to government officials
Article 1 Section 7 (Congress)
-bills regarding taxes must start in the house. —Senate may amend bills.
-House and Senate must approve laws before sending them to the President.
-Congress can override Presidential veto.
-presentment clause: president must participate in legislation.
Article 1 Section 8 (Congress)
Powers of Congress
-provide for common defense
-create necessary and proper laws
Article 1 Section 10 (Congress)
Limiting powers of state
- states can't collect taxes on imports
- states can't make treaties
- states can't make their own army and engage in war
Federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district.
an individual who reaps direct benefits from someone else's purchase (consumption) of a public good
Selective Incorporation/Incorporation Doctrine
process whereby the Courts apply parts to the Bill of Rights to the states using the 14th Amendment
A theory of government and politics emphasizing that many groups, each pressing for its preferred policies, compete and counterbalance one another
a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened
A theory of government and politics contending that an upper-class elite will hold most of the power and thus in effect run the government.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Marble Cake Federalism
the theory that all levels of government can work together to solve common problems. Also know as cooperative federalism.
Layer Cake Federalism
a way of describing the system of dual federalism in which there is a division of responsibilities between the state and the national governments
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
process by which background traits influence one's political views
response or services that Members of Congress provide to constituents who request assistance (iron triangle)
the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies (iron triangle)
primary elections in which eligible voters do not need to be registered party members
a primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members
A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
a group of people with common goals who organize to influence government
how people think or feel about particular things in government
the process of voting in an election.
How people vote