Upgrade to remove ads
Second Semester Study Guide ( Psychology )
Terms in this set (100)
__________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was _____________.
The abbreviation UCS stands for ____________.
The abbreviation UCR stands for _____________.
Little Albert's acquired fear of a white rat was a classic example of a(n) _____________________ response.
In operant conditioning, _____________ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and the
A reinforcer is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior.
Which type of learning occurs when we watch a model perform that behavior?
Thorndike was known for his work with ______.
law of effect
The concept of latent learning was developed by ______.
Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person's behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by
real, imaginary, or implied presence of others
The process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the
thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual is called ____________.
Changing one's own behavior to match that of other people is called ______.
Behavior due to others' requests or directions is called _______.
What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others are watching?
What were the important findings of Milgram's classic research?
3 factors influence obedience: authority, situation, and presence of another dissenter
What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others are watching?
People who exert less effort on a task when working in a group than they do when working individually are
engaging in ___________.
A response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, object, or situation is called
Are we born with attitudes or are they learned?
learned through a persons experiences
The sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's attitudes do not match the person's actions is
The process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another
person through argument, pleading, or explanation is called _____________.
The social group viewed as the one a person identifies with is called a (an) ________.
A social group of people viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthy of respect is a(n) ______.
What historical event prompted Jane Elliott to begin the blue eye-brown eye project with her students?
assassination of MLK
Memory is defined as an active system that consists of three processes. They are ______________.
encoding, storage, and retival
Which memory system is the one in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used?
short term memory
An active system that processes the information in short-term memory is called ______ memory.
In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be
the magic number __________.
Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term
memory through the process of ______.
Memories for general facts and personal information are called _________.
In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to
answer these kinds of questions is _________.
One example of a test that uses recognition is a(n) _____________.
What are flashbulb memories?
highly detailed and vivid snapshot of the moment and circumstances in which surprising or emotional news was heard- ex. 9/11
The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called __________.
The _____________ theory of personality has its basis in the theories of learning, and focuses on the effects
of environment on one's personal characteristics and actions.
Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?
behavioral and social cognitive
Freud believed that the _____________ was the most important determining factor in human behavior and
For Freud, ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are currently aware are in the ______ mind.
For Freud, material that we are not currently aware of but that can be easily recalled is in the ______ mind.
For Freud, thoughts and feelings that are well below the surface of awareness and cannot normally be recalled
are in the ______ mind.
"If it feels good, do it" best describes what part of the personality according to Freud?
According to Freud, rationality and logical thinking and reasoning are controlled by the ______.
The ______ controls the satisfaction of the id's drives in the external world.
In the metaphor the angel, the devil, and me, the angel is the ____________.
In the metaphor the angel, the devil, and me, the devil is the _________.
For the behaviorist, personality is a set of learned responses or _______.
In Carl Rogers's theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as ________.
According to Carl Rogers, anxiety and neurotic behaviors occur when _______.
There is a discrepancy between the real and ideal self
_____________ theory is called the "third force" in personality theory.
What is the branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of abnormal behavior?
One sign of abnormality is when a person engages in behavior that creates a great deal of emotional distress or __________.
Any behavior that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life is considered__________.
The biological model views psychological disorders as resulting from_____________.
The psychoanalytic model of abnormal behavior is based on the work of ______.
The psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ______.
repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns
According to the behaviorists, disordered behavior is a result of _____________.
a set of learned responces
According to the cognitive perspective, disordered behavior is the result of _____________.
illogical thinking patterns
The _______is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.
When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV- TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five __________.
Which axis of the DSM-IV- TR contains an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person's mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100?
Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of ______.
Free-floating anxiety refers to anxiety that is__________.
unrelated to any realistic known source
An irrational, persistent fear of something is called a(n) ______
Arlene has an irrational fear of flying in airplanes. She is probably suffering from a(n) ______.
An anxiety disorder that involves a fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation is called ______.
Fear of public speaking and stage fright are both examples of ______ phobias
People who have a(n) ______ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.
Fears of snakes, thunderstorms, darkness, and water are classified as ______ phobias
Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong is called ______.
Which of the following is the term used to describe a sudden onset of extreme panic with various symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, and sweating?
An anxiety disorder characterized by frequent panic attacks that affect the person's ability to function in day- to-day living is called ______.
A disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur again and again are followed by repetitive, ritualistic behavior meant to lower the anxiety caused by the thoughts is called____________ disorder.
Intruding thoughts that occur again and again are called _________. Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors are called________
Disorders in which there is a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination are called _________.
In which disorder does a person seem to experience at least two or more distinct personalities existing in one body?
DID - dissociative identity disorder
Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ______ disorders.
Severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause is called ______.
A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between ________.
depression and mania
A person who is suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations and who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality is likely suffering from_______.
The primary feature of ______ schizophrenia is severe disturbance of motor behavior
______ schizophrenia is characterized by delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy, together with hallucinations.
People with ______ disorders have an excessively rigid, maladaptive pattern of behavior and ways of relating to others.
__________is a mood disorder that is caused by the body's reaction to low levels of light present in the winter months
seasonal effective disorder (SED)
The kind of therapy that involves talking things out with a professional is called__________________.
The kind of therapy that uses biological treatments such as medication, surgical methods, and electrical shock treatments to bring about changes in the person's disordered behavior is called__________________.
Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by ______.
Frued was the founder and Rodgers developed it
A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is a ____________.
Dr. Lockwood is a psychiatrist. Therefore, she must have a(n) ____________ degree
medical doctorate (M.D.) degree
Many psychiatrists do not ____________.
don't perform therapy- diagnose and prescribe medication
Shane is a psychiatric social worker. When he works with his clients, he is most likely to ____________.
administer psychotherapy- work in client setting
In most states, someone who holds a(n) ______ degree would usually be called a therapist or a counselor, not a psychologist
masters of science or arts
Free association is a technique used in ______ therapy
What are the key components of Rogers's person-centered therapy?
unconditional positive regard, reflection, empathy, and authenicity
What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness?
the difference between a persons real and ideal self
According to Carl Rogers, the __________is how people see their actual traits and abilities
The form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior is called_______.
What do behavior therapists see as the cause of abnormal or undesirable behaviors?
Which of the following is a basic goal of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
A type of therapy in which clients meet regularly in a group setting and discuss problems under the guidance of a single therapist is called ______ therapy.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
PSY 2012 Final Exam
Psychology Exam 3
psych 151 final
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter7 Social Psychoogy
Phases of matter
World War II
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Introduction to Psychology Chapter One Review
Chapter 1,2,3 PSYC2103
Week 2- Hist