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Digital Photography Exam A-Z
Terms in this set (61)
A candid or "non-posed" photograph that is taken at a moment of peak motion during the course of an event or activity.
An exposure mode in which the photographer sets the
f-stop manually and the camera automatically adjusts
shutter speed for a correct exposure.
The size of the opening (sometimes called an "iris"
or "diaphragm") in a lens that allows light to enter;
measured in f-stops.
Light from sources other than the sun, such as
incandescent bulbs, fluorescent lights or a flash unit;
not to be confused with ambient light, which may or
may not include artificial light sources.
The area behind the main subject or center of interest
in an image or scene. To keep a cluttered background
from becoming distracting, a photographer can use a
wide aperture or telephoto lens to reduce depth of field,
or change the camera angle.
When the main light source comes from behind the
subject and shines in the direction of the camera.
Backlighting is used to produce silhouettes, but can
also produce incorrect exposures when photographer
fails to compensate for it.
Birds eye view
An elevated perspective that looks down on a scene
from a higher angle. Can make the subject appear
smaller or less important, literally "looked down on."
A non posed shot
A device capable of reading photo-storage (SD or CF) and transferring image data to a computer.
Center of Visual Interest
The point in a photograph where the viewer's eye is drawn. Photographers must ensure that the CVI is the intended subject of the photograph.
The careful arrangement of the elements in a photograph, used to emphasize certain subjects over others and control the Center of Visual Interest
To eliminate part of an image while composing in the viewfinder or during post-production for the purpose of improving composition
Depth of Field
The area in front of and behind the subject that is in acceptable focus. Depth of field is controlled by the lens aperture, lens focal length and distance of the camera from the subject.
A camera that enables the photographer to see the subject in the viewfinder through the same lens that presents the image to the film or sensor. This is achieved through the use of a prism that directs light to the sensor and viewfinder simultaneously.
The process that allows digital cameras to zoom in on a subject without a zoom lens. Digital zooming captures less data and produces a grainy image that is inferior to an optical zoom image.
Different combinations of camera settings (ISO, f-stop and shutter speed) that all equate to the same exposure value.
The amount of light reaching the film or sensor for a selected time. The camera's shutter speed, ISO and f-stop settings control the final exposure value.
A number that indicates the size of the opening (iris) of a lens. The smaller the f-stop or f-number, the larger the aperture.
A lens with a wide aperture, such as f/2.8, that remains fixed or constant at any focal length to accommodate most low light situations. Commonly
used fast lenses include the 50 mm f/1.8 and the 70-200 mm f/2.8.
A lens fitting that changes the color or intensity of the light passing through it.
Fixed focal length lens
A lens that does not zoom (see prime lens).
A bright and brief source of artificial light, typically coming from an electronic flash unit, used to illuminate a scene or subject
The distance between the optical center of a lens to the sensor (or imaging plane), measured in millimeters.
The area of an image where the subject is sharply defined. The plane of acceptable focus is defined by the lens' depth of field
The area in front of the main subject or centerof interest.
To reset a memory card for use with a specific camera make and model. Images can be recovered from
formatted memory cards with special software.
A composition technique where the foreground or background objects in the picture form a natural frame
around the main subject.
The time before sunset and after sunrise in which the sun emits warm-toned, directional light.
A chart appearing in a camera display or in image editing software that shows the relationship and relative intensity of tones in an image. histogram typically looks like a curved graph with one or more dominant peaks.
Standard mount on a camera for shoe-mount flash units. The hot shoe makes an electrical connection between the flash
A system built into some lenses that shifts the lens elements to compensate for small camera movements
A system of numbers determined by the International Organization for Standarization that indicates the relative sensitivity of an optical sensor to light.
A data-compression technique that reduces image file sizes by discarding information. On many digital cameras, the photographer can choose between Standard, Fine, Super Fine, and other quality settings.
A composition technique using natural lines to direct attention to the center of visual interest in a photograph
An optical piece of glass designed to focus rays of light to produce an image on film, photographic paper, sensor or screen. Adjustable lenses feature focusing and f-stop controls. Arrays of multiple lens elements are also collectively referred to as "a lens"
A device that reads the intensity of light falling on or reflected by a subject. A light meter can be a hand-held device or built into a camera
An exposure set manually by the photographer
A measurement of the resolution of a digital camera's sensor and the resulting image
A small, reusable device that is inserted into a digital camera to electronically record and temporally store digital images
The technical data of an image stored inside the image file itself
An adjustable length pole that attaches to a camera or lens to provide stability and support, especially when using long lens
Undesirable patterns or grain created electronically in dark areas of a digital photograph
Adjusting the focal length by turning the zoom ring on the lens barrel
The appearance of a digital image whose individual pixels are visible
The act of focusing on a specific place so the photographer can quickly fire when the subject or action reaches that place
Repetition of Form
Two or more objects or elements repeating in a scene. An example is dancers on a stage all performing the same move.
The number if total pixels in an image.
Rule of Thirds
A composition technique that places the main subject off-center in the photograph. The photographer mentally divides the scene into thirds, both horizontally and vertically, and then places the main subject along one of the imaginary lines or where two of the lines intersect.
Exposure mode in which the photographer sets the shutter speed and the camera automatically determines the f-stop.
A button or trigger on the camera that opens the shutter and records the image.
Indicates the length of time that the sensor is exposed to light through the gap in the moving shutter curtains. Usually measured in fractions of a second.
A device built into the lense or camera that regulates the length of time that light can reach the film or sensor.
When the main source of light is placed to the side of the subject, perpendicular to the camera, producing shadows and highlights that show contours and detail.
A unit of measuring changes in exposure. Adjusting a setting by one stop means doubling the amount of light in the exposure. ISO, aperture, and shutter speed are all adjusted in one stop increments.
Using a fast shutter speed to freeze a subject's movement without blur
a lens with a longer focal length than standard, giving a narrow field of view and a magnified image.
a three-footed stand often used to balance a camera
An effect created when too little light strikes the film during shooting. As a result the image will contain dark areas that appear very dense and dark (including shadows) and the overall contrast will be less than with a properly exposed image
a feature on digital cameras used to accurately balance color
a lens that allows for a wider angle of view and that can increase the illusion of depth within the shot
a lens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot
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