17 terms

Cell Transport

VI. CELLS A. Microscope use B. Microscopic measurement C. Cell theory D. Prokaryotic cells E. Eukaryotic cells VII. CELL MEMBRANES A. Surface to volume ratio B. Fluid Mosaic Model of membrane structure C. Selective permeability and transport VIII. OSMOSIS AND DIFFUSION A. Cellular homeostasis B. Diffusion and factors affecting its rate C. Osmosis D. Endocytosis E. Exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis IX. CELL ORGANELLES A. Structure and function of cell organelles B. Compare plant and animal ce…
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Passive Transport
molecules move with the concentration gradient from high to low concentration NO energy required.
Diffusion
Movement of MOLECULES from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (small molecules move this way)
Osmosis
Diffusion of WATER through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
Hypertonic solution
Environment outside of the cell has more dissolved material than the inside of the cell. Concentration of solutes (particles other than water - sugar, salt, etc.) outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell; this will cause the net movement of water molecules to move out of the cell. Cell will shrink in size - dehydrate.
Hypotonic solution
Environment inside of the cell has more dissolved material than the outside of the cell. Concentration of solutes (particles other than water - sugar, salt, etc.) outside the cell is lower than the concentration inside the cell; this will cause the net movement of water molecules to move inside of the cell. Cell can swell and burst if too much water moves in.
Isotonic solution
The amount of dissolved materials is equal on both the inside and outside of the cell. Concentration of solutes outside the cell equals the concentration inside the cell. Cell will stay the same size.
Facilitated Diffusion
Use of carrier PROTEINS for diffusion, does not require energy for a molecule to travel across the membrane.
Moves molecules from high to low solute concentration.
Active Transport
When energy is used to transport molecules across the membrane against the concentration gradient.
Uses ATP.
Moves molecules from low to high solute concentration
Use of protein pumps in the cell membrane to move molecules from low concentration to high concentration. ATP required to pump the ol' proteins.
Vesicle Transport
Type of active transport in which large molecules and substances are carried across the cell membrane by vesicles due to their massive size. There are two types of vesicle transport: into the cell = Endocytosis; out of the cell = Exocytosis.
Endocytosis
Active, vesicle transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell's plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell. Moves large particles into the cell.
Exocytosis
Active, vesicle transport process where a cell vesicle is formed around a large molecule inside of the cell and then releases the contents outside of the cell. Moves large particles out of the cell.
Cell Membrane
A phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment.
Phospholipid bilayer
A double layer of phospholipids that forms the basis of all cellular membranes. The phospholipids heads, which are hydrophilic, face the water of extracellular fluid or the cytoplasm; the tails, which are hydrophobic, are buried in the middle of the bilayer.
Channel Proteins
Proteins in the plasma membrane that provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion (single, charged atom) to cross the membrane.
Carrier Proteins
Membrane proteins that move ions or molecules from one side of the plasma membrane to the other - lock and key model, these proteins change shape when they encounter specific molecules they are build to transport.
Protein Pump
One category of transport proteins that uses energy to "pump" molecules through the membrane, against the concentration gradient. This molecule does active transport.
Selectively Permeable
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.