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PSY-5-19SP (Ch.15 Social Psychology in Court)
Terms in this set (64)
There are many types of witnesses; however, juries are most persuaded by witnesses who are _____.
When someone threatens our freedom of action, and our response is to reclaim freedom by doing exactly what we were told we are not allowed to do, that response is called _____.
Research shows that a group of jurors is in face, better than a single person deciding a verdict; two reasons for this are that the group of jurors is more likely to _____.
cancel out certain individual biases
have better memory from the trial
When questioning witnesses, police and attorneys tend to add their own understanding of what happened. This can lead to the tendency for witnesses to change their memory to fit the questions asked, a tendency called the _____ effect.
The text notes that eyewitness testimony is very persuasive to juries. But, it also notes that this testimony may be discounted by the jurors if it _____.
is contradicted by a different eyewitness
Select all of the following that appear more in larger juries than in smaller ones.
Give more time to deliberation
More accurately recall trial testimony
Contain members of minority groups
When attorneys present evidence in a _____ fashion, the jury is most likely to be persuaded by that evidence.
Which of the following are included in training interviewers to obtain uninterrupted recollections during the interview process.
Show pictures of the setting.
Jog the memory by first guiding people to reconstruct the setting.
Instruct them to visualize the scene.
The _____ effect is when our memories of an event change after being exposed to misleading questions about the event.
Which statement below is usually true when it comes to juries and their being more or less lenient in criminal cases?
Leniency will prevail if even a small majority favors it.
In an experiment on group polarization effects on juries, groups became polarized to be more or less lenient. This was especially true when the group included people who were high or low in _____ attitudes or personality.
Based o some research, a group of 12 jurors is better at _____, compared with a single person who has heard the evidence.
remembering the evidence
"_____-qualified" jurors are those who are in favor of the death penalty and are also more likely to favor "guilty" verdicts, regardless of the evidence.
If jurors perceive that a defendant is similar to themselves, they are more likely to _____.
find the defendant not guilty
The textbook describes three influential courtroom factors that play crucial roles in the courtroom process. Select those three below.
Research shows that people are less likely to fall victim ti misleading suggestions by police or lawyers if they have _____ before exposure to the misleading information.
told their story multiple times
When referring to eyewitness memories, many elements are involved. Select all of the following that are elements in the construction of eyewitness memories.
When it comes to judgments, a powerful variable in how the jury sees a defendant is the defendant's _____.
According to research, which of the number below matches the number of people on an ideal jury, according to psychology research?
When considering lineups the Eyewitness Evidence guide report states that police and interviewers should remind eyewitness that the person they saw may _____ be in the lineup.
When jurors see a defendant as _____, the jurors are more likely to treat them favorably.
similar to themselves
When jurors were evaluating faces, they were more likely to find baby-faced adults _____ of crimes of negligence, but not of intentional criminal acts.
There are many elements involved in the construction of eye witness memory after a crime has occurred. Which of the variables below is NOT one of these elements, according to the text?
imagining the future trial
When using "scientific jury selection," an attorney is trying to eliminate jurors based on _____.
questions designed to identify biases
Select all of the following that can adjust subtly the eyewitness's recollection of events.
choice of words
tone of voice
Select all of the following that are examples of similarities that can affect verdicts.
speaking the same language
race fits the crime
Select all of the following that can increase identification accuracy.
train police and interviewers
According to the textbook, what are some ways that judges can help juries ignore inadmissible evidence?
Forewarn juries that some evidence will be irrelevant.
Teach juries legal procedures before the trial begins.
Videotape, then edit, any testimony before juries see it.
Based on the textbook, which of the following would lead someone to be more committed to the accuracy of one's own memory?
Retelling the story of what happened multiple times.
In an experiment on group polarization effects on juries, the final decisions often became more extreme after discussion and typically were swayed by people who were very high or very low in _____.
When police and interviewers were properly trained to interview, eyewitness memory accuracy _____, while errors due to the misinformation effect _____.
increased; state the same
Jurors who are in favor of the death penalty, but who are also more concerned with crime control than they are with making sure the correct decision is made in a trial, are sometimes called _____.
True or false: If a White defendant is charged with embezzlement, he or she is more likely to be convicted of the crime because it fits a crime stereotype.
Jurors may be influenced by a defendant's _____.
similarity to the jurors
When considering experiments and research, the good thing about police lineups is that they contain a _____ group.
When evidence is not highly incriminating, deliberating jurors often become more _____.
Imagining childhood events continuously that have not actually happened leads about 25 percent of people to mistakenly think the event really did happen; this tendency is sometimes called "imagination _____."
When judges tell jurors to disregard testimony, but the jurors mentally fight back by focusing on that testimony instead of ignoring it, this response may be due to an automatic desire to protect our freedom of action. This tendency is called _____.
Training police interviewers is one way to reduce _____.
identification errors from eyewitnesses
Before group discussions, most juries don't agree on what the verdict should be. After deliberation, _____ percent of juries come to a unanimous decision.
The text outlines several ways trials might increase jurors' understanding. Check the ideas below that have been shown to do just that.
Give jurors transcripts of the trial before they make a decision.
Give them a number for how sure they need to be (for example, 90 percent).
"_____ inflation" happens when we think something fictional really happened after visualizing it repeatedly, because the visualization triggers the same parts of the brain as does actually experiencing it.
Which of the following are the key questions to consider for jury group deliberation?
How are verdicts influenced by individual jurors' characteristics?
How are verdicts influenced by jurors' deliberations with each other?
Eyewitness testimony is not always accurate, despite its use in criminal cases. The _____ testing now available has proven the innocence of individuals who were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Research shows that when eyewitnesses to crimes are paying attention to surrounding, small details while a crime occurs, they are _____ likely to accurately remember the criminal's fat.
When jurors are polled individually before group deliberations occur, what fraction of juries initially disagree on the verdict?
two out of three
When referring to recollections and recall, witnesses are more likely to make false recollections with faces of another _____.
Select all of the following that explain how minority jurors influence final decisions.
To educate jurors about the many different ways to evaluate testimony, many courts now bring in experts to teach jurors about research on _____.
eyewitness memory and potential errors
Three different experiments on police lineups showed that _____ percent of people correctly identified a suspect from a crime.
Of the first 250 convictions overturned by DNA evidence, _____ percent wee wrongful convictions due to mistaken eyewitnesses.
True or false: Research shows that when a judge tells a jury to ignore certain evidence, the jury is very good at not letting that evidence influence them.
Even when a judge requires jurors to ignore _____ testimony, it can still cause much harm to the trial because this kind of testimony is particularly memorable to the jury members.
In the Ron Shatford case, the witness told police that the robber was not wearing a tie and was good looking. The police put unattractive men wearing ties in the lineup with the good-looking Shatford, and the witness readily identified him as the robber. This is a clear example of _____.
false lineup identification
According to the text, which of the options below is the "essence" of social psychology experiments?
Testing how changes in a social situation can affect us
Research shows that when jurors are exposed to pretrial publicity or information about the case, but a judge orders the jurors to ignore all of this information, jurors _____.
Ignore the judge's orders and are just as likely to use the information as people not ordered to ignore
Research shows that accurate identifications and memories for crimes are typically _____.
automatic and effortless
Typically, jurors' decisions become more extreme after group discussion. This is a classic example of the phenomenon known as _____.
Research shows that when a judge gives instructions to a jury, the jurors tens to _____.
ignore the instructions
When summarizing research on juries and the instructions they receive, Ellsworth and Mauro (1998) said that in most cases, the instructions were _____.
frustrating and technical
True or false: Research shows that constantly, jurors are not able to set aside biases, even in the face of facts and evidence.
Research shows that when it comes to trial attorneys' ability to select a jury "stacked in their favor," most lawyers are _____.
overconfident in their abilities
According to the book, what is the best way to alter judicial practices in cases relevant to the death penalty?
Have separate juries determine guilt, then wether to enact the death penalty.
When comparing "real" or powerful false memories with actual memories, most research finds that _____.
both types of memory feel equally real
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PSY-5-19SP (Ch.12 Helping)
PSY-5-19SP (Ch.13 Conflict and Peacemaking)
PSY-5 (Ch.6 Emotion)
PSY-5 (Ch.9 Social Influence)
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