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US History Final Review: [Ramsey BHS Spring 2019]
Terms in this set (82)
attention to worldly things and neglect of spiritual needs
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include incomes that are less than three times a low-cost food budget
a social and artistic movement of the 1950's stressing unrestrained literary self expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture [Kerouac, Ginsburg]
Middle Class Values
Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century; it emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and "respectability."
1950's stay at home mom, no work, take care of kids, make Betty Crocker cake mixes -- you know!
The Other American
A book by Michael Harrington, in which he chronicled the existence of poverty in America, particularly in inner cities and rural areas.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Rock and Roll
music that grew out of rhythm and blues and that became popular in the 1950s
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
20th Century Mexican American who devoted his life to improving conditions for migrant workers Farm Workers
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Bakke v. University of California
1978 Supreme Court ruling that limited affirmative action by rejecting a quota system.
A list of rights that police in the United States must read to suspects in custody before questioning them, pursuant to the Supreme Court decision in Miranda v. Arizona.
1961-1963, Democrat, both parties had the platform of civil rights planks and a national health program, used president to be elected and first Roman Catholic
JFK's brother and was assassinated before being able to finish his political race
Vise President to JFK,1963-1969, deomcrat, passed civil rights act of 64, included a program called Great Society, presidency based on vietnam war, passed Gulf of Tonkin and said "to take any measures nessesary",decided to escalate American involvement in Vietnam, proved to be extremely unpopular
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Voting Rights Act
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Gives Washington DC electoral college votes as if it were a state (DC still has no representation in Congress)
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
- New York city - Triggered activist protests among gays and lesbians - police raided gay bar - people fought back - became symbol of oppression of gays, began the gay pride movement
American Indian Movement (AIM)
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of African Americans
I Have a Dream
This speech by Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington focused on civil rights.
Letters from Birmingham Jail
MLK spent 11 days in jail, he civilly addressed white clergymen who criticized his protest tactics.
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)
Kent State Massacre
Four killed, nine wounded by Ohio National Guard during protest of U.S. invasion of Cambodia
A 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Jackson State University
10 days after Kent State shooting, this black school in Mississippi had state troops enter dormitories and began shooting wildly. Killed 2 and wounded 12.
The US theory that stated, if one country would fall to Communism then they all would.
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution that authorized President Johnson to commit US troops to south vietnam and fight a war against north Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
The French conquer Vietnam in the late 1880s and rule until their defeat at Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Conference in 1954
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
JFK assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was then shot by Jack Ruby when being transferred between jails. The Warren Commission was created to investigate the crime.
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
a way of life and set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm.
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
War Powers Act
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
Peace Corps, 1961
JFK called for volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by fighting poverty in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Volunteers went abroad to work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment.
National Space and Aeronautics Administration
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support
Tom Hanks film
A policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
Nigeria, Venezuela Saudi Arabia...
Virus that destroys the immune system that should protect the body from diseases. The disease is passed from person to person through sexual acts, blood transfusions, used hypodermic needles, or from mother to child during birth.
This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)
a. Star Wars (1982)
b. Glasnost and perestroika (1985)
c. Iran Contra Affair (1986)
d. The fall of the Berlin Wall (1989)
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Camp David Accords
(1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative)
Reagan's proposed missile-defense system; featured orbiting battle stations in space that could fire laser beams to vaporize intercontinental missiles on liftoff; popularly known as "Star Wars", Reagan described it as an "astrodome" shield over America; scientifically impossible and astronomically expensive, the initiative was part of Reagan's plan to force the Soviets' hand.
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Opening to China (1969-79)
An episode between 1969-79 in which President carter used his constitutional power without consulting Congress when recognizing the people's republic of china as a nation
*Significance-Illustrates how important the presidency is in terms of diplomatic recognition, and in general how powerful he is in foreign policy
Within his first month of Presidency, Gerald Ford gave full pardon to Nixon. Which aroused fierce criticism, and soon his approval ratings went from 71% to 50%.
Environmental Protection Agency
An agency created in 1970 to administer all environmental legislation. EPA
Persian Gulf War
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
Impeached for purjury about Monica Lewinsky. Tried and acquitted by the Senate.
Bush v. Gore (2000)
Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
the U.S. was attacked by the Al Qaeda which resulted in the War on Terrorism and the Patriot Acts
An armed conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. an invasion force led by the United States and a phase of fighting, in which an insurgency emerged to oppose coallition forces
2008; Democrat; first African American president of the US, health care bill; Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster; economy: huge stimulus package to combat the great recession, is removing troops from Iraq, strengthened numbers in Afghanistan; repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell; New Start treaty with Russia
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Prominent child care advocate and health care reformer in Clinton administration; won U.S. senate seat in 2000 lost agai st Trump
Presidents Kennedy to Trump
JFK LBJ NIXON FORD CARTER REAGAN BUSH CLINTON BUSH OBAMA TRUMP
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