History final exam
Terms in this set (120)
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
An English explorer who explored for the Dutch. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland. He also had the Hudson Bay named for him
Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
He mistakenly discovered the Americas in 1492 while searching for a faster route to India.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia
Plymouth Bay Colony
Founded by the Pilgrims in 1620. They were headed towards Virginia, but their ship was blown off course.
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Act of Toleration
a 1649 Maryland law that provided religious freedom for all Christians
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
an English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Sons of Liberty
A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution
A 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Sugar Act of 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
1773. A tax on Tea. Led to the Boston Tea Party.
Law that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops
commities of correspondence
Local committees established in Massachusetts and later in each of the 13 colonies to maintain colonial opposition to the British policies through letters
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Boston Tea Party
protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799) "Give me Liberty or give me death"
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
petition to the king urging him to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights; recognized Parliament's authority to regulate commerce
Wrote the Declaration of Independence, 3rd president
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Lexington and Concord
first battles of the Revolutionary War
The turning point of the American Revolution. France decided to help the Americans.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease
the first important battle of the American War of Independence (1775)
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
Author of Common Sense
Treaty of Paris 1783
ended the Revolutionary War
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
Father of the Constitution, 4th president
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
agreement providing a dual system of congressional representation
each slave would count for 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
stated that the United States would not take sides with any European countries that were at war
1796 speech by Washington urging US to maintain neutrality and avoid permanent alliances with European nations
1794 protest against the government's tax on whiskey by backcountry farmers
A 1797 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
An action by a state that cancels a federal law to which the state objects
Alien Act and Sedition Act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers sent by the president to explore the Louisiana Purchase
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
Native American woman that helped Lewis and Clark
Embargo Act of 1807
Act passed by congress in 1807 prohibiting American ships from leaving for any foreign port
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Battle fought against the Shawnee by William Henry Harrison. British gun powder proved that they were assisting the Shawnee and gave congress reason to declare war
War of 1812
A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.
Francis Scott Key
wrote the Star Spangled Banner
5th president - Monroe doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Era of Good Feelings
time during Monroe's presidency when the country entered a period of national unity.
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
- Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850
Americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society
slogan for Andrew Jackson's campaign
gave the president power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Trail of Tears
the forced removal of Cherokees and their transportation to Oklahoma
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country
California Gold Rush
Mass migration to California following the discovery of gold in 1848
the 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
James K. Polk
11th president. Wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Second Great Awakening
a revival of religious feeling and belief from the 1800s to the 1840s
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
woman who pushed for changes in the treatment of the mentally ill and founded 32 mental hospitals
Quaker women's rights advocate who also strongly supported abolition of slavery
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
William Lloyd Garrison
Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Rule by the people
Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court ruling that declared slaves were not viewed as citizens but as property
Fugitive Slave Law
this law required that northern states forcibly returned escaped slaves to their owners.
Compromise of 1850
Agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories
Federal arsenal in Virginia seized by abolitionist John Brown in 1859. Though Brown was later captured and executed, his raid alarmed Southerners who believed that Northerners shared in Brown's extremism.