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46 terms

Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development

STUDY
PLAY
human development
multidisciplinary scientific study of how people change and how they stay the same
nature-nurture issue
issue concerning the manner in which genetic and environmental factors influence development
continuity-discontinuity issue
issue concerned with whether a developmental phenomenon follows either a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts
universal versus context-specific development issue
issue of whether there is one path of development or several
biological forces
all genetic and health-related factors that affect development
psychological forces
all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development
sociocultural forces
all interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors that influence development
life-cycle forces
differences in how the same event may affect people of different ages
biopsychosocial framework
view that integrates biological, psychological, sociocultural and life-cycle forces on development
theory
organized set of ideas that explains development
psychodynamic theory
theories in which human behavior is said to be guided by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious
epigenetic principle
view in Erikson's theory that each psychosocial stage has its own importance
operant conditioning
view of learning, proposed by B.F. skinner that emphasizes reward and punishment
reinforcement
consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour will be repeated in the future
punishment
applying an aversive stimulus (e.g. a time-out) or removing an attractive stimulus (e.g. watching t.v.)
imitation (observational learning)
learning that happens by watching those around us
social cognitive theory
view that thinking, as well as direct reinforcement and punishment, plays an important part in shaping behavior
self-efficacy
belief that one is capable of performing a certain task
information-processing theory
view that human cognition consists of mental hardware and software
ecological theory
view that human development cannot be separated from the environmental contexts in which development occurs
microsystem
according to Bronfenbrenner, the people and objects that are present in one's immediate environment
mesosystem
according to Bronfenbrenner, the interrelations between different microsystems
exosystem
according to Bronfenbrenner, social settings that influence one's development even though one does not experience them firsthand
macrosystem
according to Bronfenbrenner, the cultural and subcultural settings in which the microsystems, mesosystems, and exosystems are embedded
life-span perspective
view that development is determined by many biological, psychological, and social factors and that all parts of the life span are interrelated
selective optimization with compensation (SOC)
a model of successful adaptation to aging that emphasizes selection of goals, followed by efforts to maintain or enhance those chosen goals
life-course perspective
describes the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical context
systematic observation
involves watching people and carefully recording what they say or do
naturalistic observation
form of systematic observation in which people are observed as the behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
structured observation
setting created by a researcher that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interest so that it can be observed
self-reports
people's answers to questions about topics of interest
reliability
as applied to tests, when test scores are consistent from one testing time to another
validity
as applied to tests, the extent to which the test measures what is supposed to measure
populations
broad group of people that are the focus of research
sample
subset of population
qualitative study
a study in which researchers look in-depth at experiences and processes, usually of relatively small group of subjects about which very little is known
correlational study
investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
correlation coefficient
statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relation between two variables
experiment
systematic way of manipulating factors that a researcher thinks cause a particular behavior
independent variable
factor that researchers manipulate in an experiment
dependent variable
behavior that is observed after other variables are manipulated
longitudinal study
research design in which a single cohort is studied over multiple measurements
cross-sectional study
research design in which people of different ages are compared at one point in time
cohort effects
differences between individuals that result from experiences and circumstances unique to a person's particular generation
sequential design
complex research design consisting of multiple cross sectional or longitudinal designs
cohort sequential design
combines longitudinal and cross-sectional approaches by studying several cohorts over time