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multidisciplinary scientific study of how people change and how they stay the same
issue concerning the manner in which genetic and environmental factors influence development
issue concerned with whether a developmental phenomenon follows either a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts
universal versus context-specific development issue
issue of whether there is one path of development or several
all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development
all interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors that influence development
view that integrates biological, psychological, sociocultural and life-cycle forces on development
theories in which human behavior is said to be guided by motives and drives that are internal and often unconscious
view of learning, proposed by B.F. skinner that emphasizes reward and punishment
consequence that increases the likelihood that a behaviour will be repeated in the future
applying an aversive stimulus (e.g. a time-out) or removing an attractive stimulus (e.g. watching t.v.)
social cognitive theory
view that thinking, as well as direct reinforcement and punishment, plays an important part in shaping behavior
view that human development cannot be separated from the environmental contexts in which development occurs
according to Bronfenbrenner, the people and objects that are present in one's immediate environment
according to Bronfenbrenner, social settings that influence one's development even though one does not experience them firsthand
according to Bronfenbrenner, the cultural and subcultural settings in which the microsystems, mesosystems, and exosystems are embedded
view that development is determined by many biological, psychological, and social factors and that all parts of the life span are interrelated
selective optimization with compensation (SOC)
a model of successful adaptation to aging that emphasizes selection of goals, followed by efforts to maintain or enhance those chosen goals
describes the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical context
form of systematic observation in which people are observed as the behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
setting created by a researcher that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interest so that it can be observed
a study in which researchers look in-depth at experiences and processes, usually of relatively small group of subjects about which very little is known
investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
statistic that reveals the strength and direction of the relation between two variables
systematic way of manipulating factors that a researcher thinks cause a particular behavior
research design in which people of different ages are compared at one point in time
differences between individuals that result from experiences and circumstances unique to a person's particular generation
complex research design consisting of multiple cross sectional or longitudinal designs
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