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Final Exam for Sun's History Class
Terms in this set (59)
The Fair Deal
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
The Sharon Statement
Drafted by founding members of the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF), this manifesto outlined the group's principles and inspired young conservatives who would play important roles in the Reagan administration in the 1980s.
1950s Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
C. Wright Mills
Coined the term sociological imagination
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
The Southern Manifesto
The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s communist leader of North Vietnam; used guerrilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
1963-1969, Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
The Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
The Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.
The Port Huron Statement
Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
African-American civil rights leader who encouraged violent responses to racial discrimination.
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Former associate of Clarence Thomas, who accused him of sexual harassment in Senate Judiciary Committee hearings.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Advisory committee organized by JFK during the cuban missile crisis.
Black Power Movement
African American movement that focused on gaining control of economic and political power to achieve equal rights by force in necessary. (Malcolm X)
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States
This man was an African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Hearings were reopened, and he became the second African American to hold a seat in the Supreme Court.
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans, use violence to make its point
The Feminine Mystique
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
Roe v. Wade
The 1973 Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
The Christian Coalition
in the 1990's, Pentecostal minister Pat Robertson began a political movement and launched this organization. These and other organizations of the Christian right opposed federal interference in local affairs; denounced abortion, divorce, feminism, and homosexuality; defended unrestricted free enterprise, and supported a strong American posture in the world.
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
War Powers Act
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack by a serious threat.
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
President Richard Nixon's strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, Jesse Jackson first black presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
California measure designed to deny welfare and other benefits to illegal aliens. Overwhelmingly passed the popular vote, but overturned in federal court because it extending beyond the bounds of state rights to attempt to control immigration.
Iran Contra Affair
This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
A Nicaraguan rebel group that got financial support from the CIA. This group was formed as a response to the overthrowing of Anastazio Somoza Debayle
In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale.
George H. W. Bush
41st U.S. President. 1989-1993. Republican
National Security Council; headed the initiative in the Iran-Contra Scandal; convicted of perjury but later overturned
Anti-feminist who led the campaign to defeat the ERA claiming it would undermine the american family
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
The Persian Gulf War
(1990 - 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the United States to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States' coalition emerging victorious.
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
Sandra Day O'Conner
first woman to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States
drafted the majority opinion in Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan. This case involved gender discrimination in which a man sued after being denied admission to the traditionally all-female nursing school. The Court ruled that the school must admit qualified men, and O'Connor also reasoned that not allowing men into the school perpetuated the limiting stereotype that nursing was a woman's job. In 1992, O'Connor served as the swing vote that reaffirmed the Roe v. Wade decision in the abortion rights case Planned Parenthood v. Casey, despite the Republican push to overturn Roe.
George W. Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
the Bush Doctrine-President George W.
Bush's foreign policy principle wherein
the United States would launch a war on
war on terrorism-Global crusade to root
out anti-American, anti-Western Islamist
terrorist cells; launched by President
George W. Bush as a response to the 9/11
Served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. Ran for President in 2000 and won popular vote but lost Electoral College
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
1. How was the welfare system restructured in the mid to late 1990's? Consider the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 and other initiatives.
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is a United States federal law passed by the 104th United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. The bill implemented major changes to U.S. social welfare policy, replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program.
The law was a cornerstone of the Republican Party's "Contract with America," and also fulfilled Clinton's campaign promise to "end welfare as we know it." AFDC had come under increasing criticism in the 1980s, especially from conservatives who argued that welfare recipients were "trapped in a cycle of poverty." After the 1994 elections, the Republican-controlled Congress passed two major bills designed to reform welfare, but they were vetoed by Clinton. After negotiations between Clinton and Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, Congress passed PRWORA and Clinton signed the bill into law on August 22, 1996.
PRWORA granted states greater latitude in administering social welfare programs, and implemented new requirements on welfare recipients, including a five-year lifetime limit on benefits. After the passage of the law, the number of individuals receiving federal welfare dramatically declined. The law was heralded as a "reassertion of America's work ethic" by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, largely in response to the bill's workfare component. Critics have argued that the law unnecessarily damaged the social safety net, increased the poverty rate, and pushed former recipients into low-paying jobs.
2. How was the civil rights movement of the 1950's different from the movement of the 1960's? What were the different organizations and their strategies? What kind of progress did they make? Who was involved? Consider: the Greensboro sit-in, Freedom Riders, Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Civil Rights Acts, the New Left, SNNC, and Brown v. The Board of Education.
3. Review the status of the poor, the homeless and AIDS victims during the 1980's. How did the government respond to the needs of each of these groups? What was President Reagan's attitude toward and strategy for dealing with AIDS?
4. Trace the developments of the Vietnam War. How did we initially get involved? How did each president handle the war? How did we exit Vietnam? Was there "peace with honor"?
5. Describe the gains made by women and ethnic minorities in the 1960's and 1970's. Consider: the Black Power, Brown Power (Hispanic rights), Red Power (Native American rights), and Feminist movements. What long term, institutional changes were created?
6. What is the Cold War and how did each president following World War II deal with the Cold War? How did Reagan reinvigorate the Cold War? What was President Reagan's attitude toward The Soviet Union? What sort of policy did he implement?
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