Intro to Social Work Chapter 8
Terms in this set (64)
doctor administered cause of death of terminally ill patients.
formal written statement that outlines the medical options and procedures a person may or may not want to prolong life.
belief in the superiority of youth over age and the systematic oppression of people because they are older.
most common form of dementia, accounting for 60-80%. symptoms vary but include impaired memory, thinking, and language abilities, along with personality or behavior changes. there is currently no cure, but early detection and treatment can delay the diseases most difficult and expensive stages. function more on an emotional level than an intellectual level.
Area Agencies on Aging (AAA)
federally sponsored statewide offices designed to coordinate and fund social services for older people.
Americans born between 1946 - 1964. their aging will necessitate a vast increase in health, recreation, housing, and nutrition services for people who are older, as well as increases to entitlement programs such as Social Security.
condition of loss of intellectual and social abilities that is severe enough to interfere with daily functions. function more on an emotional level than an intellectual level.
Maltreatment of older people by injury, neglect, or exploited. Examples are physical abuse, forced confinement, cruel punishment, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, harassment, withholding basic necessities such as food or medical attention, and financial exploitation. most common form is physical abuse.
Family and medical Leave Act
law that allows people unpaid time off work to care for dependent parents or newborn children.
study of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging.
formal statement written signed while while person is mentally competent that specifies how the person wishes to have his or her own death handled in the event that the person cannot participate in the decision making.
Long Term Care
set of health and social services delivered over a sustained period of the at home or in a medical or nursing facility.
federal and state funded needs based on health insurance program for people whose incomes and assets fall beneath a set number, added a Social Security Act of 1965.
universal, federally funded compulsory health insurance program for older people, added to the Social Security Act of 1965. no eligibility requirements. does not cover nursing home costs over 100 days.
Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act (MMA)
legislation that provides prescription drug benefits for Medicare eligible seniors by implementing a Part D benefit to the Medicare Program, by which members enroll with private companies to obtain prescription medications.
not providing basic necessities such as food or medical attention.
intentional termination of one's own life with means provided by another person, such as a doctor.
long term care advocates for residents of nursing homes, board and care homes, and assisted living facilities.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
2010 federal law passed to increase health insurance coverage for millions of uninsured people and improve health care.
combination of psychiatric and mental health care ad services for older people.
Social Security Income (SSI)
cash assistance to people who are poor and older, or poor with disabilities. average pay of $393, but depends on other income and where the person lives. in most states benefits are only 75% of the poverty rate.
more than 37 million people (12.4 %) are over the age of 65.
social workers use an __ __ to analyze the dynamics between the client and family, client and neighborhood, client and social supports, client and medical supports, client and other systems.
Social Worker Knowledge Categories
1. biological and physiological aspects of aging, 2. cognitive processes and emotional/psychological development, 3. sociological aspects of aging, and 4. legal, political, and economic aspects of aging.
Biological and Physiological Aspects of Aging
normal aging of the body need not diminish a persons quality of life. social workers assist clients in modifying their lifestyles and homes so they can continue to enjoy satisfying and productive lives. need to be aware of common medications and advances in pharmacology. people over 65 report taking more than 4 medications daily.
Adverse Drug Event (ADE)
more commonly called a drug reaction, can lead to hospitalization or loss of independence. May be due to several medications prescribed from different doctors who do not have knowledge of all prescriptions.
Cognitive Process and Emotional/Psychological Development
when older people retire, they must restructure their time, build relationships outside of work, and develop new identities not linked to their work o be more satisfied in post retirement years. Social workers help navigate stressful life events such as retirement, widowhood, physical decline, residential relocation, loss, and approaching death. Social workers need to know about factors that affect learning, intelligence, and memory, which the loss of are not necessarily a part of aging. life and environmental factors, such as anxiety, can cause these impairments.
Sociological Aspects of Aging
social workers should know about marital roles, grand-parenthood, and sexual behavior, and how they change as people age. Activity theory and disengagement theory examine role changes among the elderly.
proposes that the more active a person is, the more satisfied they will be during their golden years. for example: weeding their garden, talking with their friends on the phone, visiting a museum, or caring for pets.
asserts that to withdraw and become more introspective as one grows older is normal and healthy. Contrasts with activity theory. Connie, an active ex college professor breaks her hip and slips from her social life into an isolated phase before she dies.
Legal, Economic, and Political Aspects
social workers need to be well informed about important legal issues, court cases, legislation, and economic policies that effect and protect the elderly. issues include age discrimination, guardianship and conservatorship, living wills, power of attorney for health care, and social security and pension benefits. Also the legal rights of chronically and terminally ill people, as doctors honor peoples wishes only about half the time. It is important for an elderly person to name an agent (like minded friend or family member).
Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)
established in 1964 funded community based social services, including services for the elderly.
Area Agencies on Aging (AAA)
established along with the OAA, both seriously underfunded, led to the establishment of Medicaid and Medicare.
Oregon Death with dignity Act
1965 Older Americans Act (OAA)
created the federal Administration on Aging (AOA) and the statewide Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) designed to coordinate and fund social services for older people. funds senior centers and nutrition programs.
part A - hospital insurance, helps pay for inpatient care and certain follow ups; part B - pays for up to 80% of allowable doctor services, outpatient hospital care; part c - medicare advantage provides an expanded set of options for the delivery of health care typically through HMO's and PPO's; part D provides subsidized access to prescription drug benefits where members enroll with private companies to obtain their prescriptions.
covers hospital inpatient care, doctor's services, skilled nursing facility care, home health services, pharmacy services, mental health services, and long-term and short-term nursing home costs.
Social Services Block Grant
provides federal funds for adult foster and day acre programs, as well as home meals and other social services primarily for SSI recipients.
Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
allows women and men time off work to care for dependent parents and newborn children. requires employers to grant eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during any 12 month period for birth, adoption, placement of foster child, care for a spouse, child, or parent with serious medical condition.
the young-old (65-74 years); the old-old (75-84 years); the oldest-old (85+ years) - according to the US Census Bureau.
Elderly Percentage Increase
1. fewer babies being born, 2. the baby boom generation is reaching the age of 65, 3. people continue to live longer and longer.
78 years on average compare to 47 years back in 1900.
Adult Protective Services (APS)
investigates reported cases of elder abuse, neglect, and self neglect. they arrange emergency shelter and transportation for victims, and facilitate the victim's return home or to alternative long-term living arrangements.
Adult Foster Care (AFC) and Adult Care Homes (ACH)
there is a concerted effort to maintain a homelike environment. sizes range from 1 - 20 people, most commonly housed in private homes in the community.
Adult Day Care
the provision of community-based services in a group setting. two purposes; 1. to help clients maintain a certain level of independence and remain in their homes, 2. to provide respite for caregivers. many centers provide services for special populations such as those with Alzheimer's, AIDS, mental illness, visual or hearing loss. provides grief and bereavement groups, reality orientated groups, and educational or self help groups.
Assisted Living Facilities (AL)
can house hundreds of clients and typically utilize apartment-like settings.
the treatment method of choice for older clients who live in the community and need ongoing care. the first steps are to complete a psychological assessment. once the strengths and needs are identified, a case manager will plan the appropriate interventions. the social worker helps process issues of dependency, loss, and loneliness. is the primary tool in gerontology to help people remain in their homes. goals are to improve client access to long-term care, support caregivers with counseling and info, and serve as a bridge between institutional and community based care service.
Minorities, Women, People living alone, and people living in rural areas are most at risk. 1. life long gender and race discrimination result in lack of pensions and lower social security benefits. 2. living in prolonged poverty. 3. language barriers. 4. the stigma associated with needing help. 5. geographic distance and transportation problems. 6. lack of knowledge of services.
Death with Dignity Act
a 1994 law in Oregon, that allows doctors to prescribe, but not administer, lethal doses of medication. the patient must ask for the prescription several times over a 15 day period, 2 doctors must certify the patient has 6 months or less to live, and the patient must be sound of mind.
a formal written statement that outlines the medical options and procedures a person may or may not want to prolong life. Alternative to a living will, used when the person is not of sound mind or body.
stealing, withholding, or mismanaging money that belongs to an older person.
the failure to provide for one's self or the failure to avoid physical harm or mental anguish. it may be a side effect of dementia, depression, or physical disability.
withholding basic necessities such as food or medical attention.
Factors of Elder Abuse
the typical victim is 75+, female, widowed, socially isolated, frail, and dependent. female victims often live with their abuser and are more likely to commit suicide or die from heart or lung disease, cancer, and accidental injuries. most perpetrators are spouses, adult children, or trusted adults and institutional caregivers. the vulnerability of the victim, stress on caregiver, and long-term economic hardship combine to create high risk scenario.
Caregivers of Dementia Patients
caregivers of persons with dementia often have feelings of feel guilt, anxiety, frustration, social isolation, anger, and depression in trying to balance the demands of work, family, other relationships, and the loss of the relationship with their loved one. social workers can help them prevent burnout with the use of stress techniques, respite from care services.
problems that develop among older people are anxiety, paranoid disorders, and substance abuse, which are often the results of social isolation, sense of powerlessness, and progressive sensory decline that many experience with aging. often over looked or ignored by practitioners.
becomes more common as individuals begin to experience the physical, social, and psychological changes associated with aging. although treatable, many older people refuse treatment. one of the most under diagnosed conditions that affect health and well-being.
represent a large portion of caregivers, and are predicted to continue to be the largest source of long-term care services in the US. financial well-being and earning power are negatively impacted. spend about 35 hours a week and $196 a month for care services.
usually older and in fair to poor condition themselves. suffer emotionally from care giving responsibilities. report high levels of depression, stress, and mental health problems. social isolation is a byproduct of care giving.
do not resuscitate. written either at the hospital or in legal form to follow a persons wishes.
a special concept of care designed to provide comfort and support patients and their families when a life limiting illness no longer responds to cure-oriented treatments. neither prolongs life nor hastens death. the goal is to improve the quality of of a patient's last days by offering comfort and dignity.
is a court case where a judge appoints a responsible person or organization to care for another adult (conservatee) who cannot manage their own finances and protect their assets. does not have the broad authority of a guardian.
have more control than conservators. attends to another persons entire well-being, including housing accommodations and special services they may need. must protect the wards personal belongings and provide any educational services.
people who care for their aging parents while supporting their own children.
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