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Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion

Potential Energy

stored energy

First law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms

Second law of thermodynamics

Entropy of the universe always increases


Measure of disorder or randomness- can decrease by putting energy into it


converts solar energy into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate- Solar energy + 6CO2 +6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2. Organisms include plants, algae and certain bacteria.

Cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6CO2 = 6CO2 +6H2O


Adenosine Triphosphate- provides energy to cells for chemical reactions

Oxidation-Reduction reactions

Chemical reactions which involve a partial or complete transfer of electrons. Called redox reactions.


Oxidation Is Loss of elections, Reduction Is Gain of electrons / Loss of Electrons is Oxidation, Gain of Electrons is Reduction

Electron Carriers



enzyme that adds P directly onto ADP to make ATP- used for quick energy, anaerobic, occurs in cytoplasm


The breakdown of glucose by the removal of hydrogens- used for short term energy production, anaerobic, occurs in cytoplasm- produces 2 molecules of pyruvate


ATP used to add phosphates to glucose


6 C unit split into two 3 C units

Energy recovery

Production of ATP & NADH

Inputs of glycolysis

Glucose, 2 NAD+, 2 ATP, 4 ADP + 2P

Outputs of glycolysis

2 Pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP (net gain)

Pyruvate- oxygen absent

Fermentation in cytoplasm

Pyruvate- oxygen present

Kreb's cycle in mitochondria


regenerates NAD+ from NADH

Lactic Acid

What builds up in underused muscles

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Animal cells. Pyruvic acid is converted to 3 carbon lactic acid. Diffuses into blood, transported to liver and converted back to pyruvic acid when oxygen is present.

Alcoholic fermentation

Plant cells and yeast convert pyruvic acid to ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and CO2

Transition Reaction

Occurs in the matrix, pyruvate combines with coenzyme A (CoA) to produce acetyl CoA. 2 NAD is reduced to NADH + H. 2 CO2 is released.

Cellular Respiration

used for long term energy production, aerobic, occurs in mitochondria matrix, can use glucose, fats or proteins as fuel.

Krebs Cycle

Citric Acid cycle- Acetyl CoA combines with 4C. 6C is oxidized as NAD reduced to NADH, CO2 removed. 5C is oxidized as NAD reduced to NADH, another CO2 is formed, ATP is generated. 4C is oxidized as FAD and NAD reduced to FADH2 and NADH. 4C molecule.

Output of Krebs Cycle per glucose molecule

6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, 4 CO2

Electron Carriers

Store energy

Electron transport proteins

membrane proteins

H+ pumps

membrane protein to pump a proton against concentration gradient


Final electron acceptor

ATP Synthase

protein that uses energy released by movement of protons down concentration gradient to make ATP

ATP yielded by each NADH


ATP yielded by each FADH2



The process by which light energy is converted into stored chemical energy


Distance between 2 peaks

Small wavelength

higher energy

Large wavelength

lower energy


absorb different wavelengths of light from chlorophyll. They appear red, yellow and orange to us.


Fluid filled region


Disk like sac


Stack of thylakoids


found in thylakoid membrane, absorbs red and blue.

Light dependent reactions step 1

Light excites e- in chlorophyll of photosystem II

Light dependent reactions step 2

e- move to an e- acceptor

Light dependent reactions step 3

e- transferred along ETC

Light dependent reactions step 4

Light excites e- in photosystem I and move to an e- acceptor. e- are replaced by e- from photosystem II.

Light dependent reactions step 5

e- are transported along another ETC and combine with NADP+ to make NADPH

Restoring photosystem II

enzyme in thylakoid splits water into protons, electrons and oxygen. Electrons replace photosystem II, protons are left inside thylakoid, oxygen diffuses.


build up of concentration gradient of protons (H+)

Calvin Cycle

Light independent reactions. Occurs in stroma, also known as carbon fixation.

Calvin cycle step 1

CO2 combines with RuBP to form 2-3 carbon PGA

Calvin cycle step 2

PGA is converted to PGAL, through release of phosphate and a proton from NADPH

Calvin cycle step 3

Most PGAL is converted back to RuBP, some is used to make organic compounds.

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