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66 terms

Biology Midterm Vocab Ch1-2

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Science
organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world; also, the body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process
Observation
use of one or more of the senses—sight, hearing, touch, smell, and sometimes taste—to gather information
Data
evidence; information gathered from observations
Inference
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
Hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
***Fact
? No textbook definition...?
Spontaneous Generation
hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter
Controlled Experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same
Independant (manipulated) Variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable
Dependant (responding) Variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable; also known as a dependent variable
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Biology
science that seeks to understand the living world
Cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
Sexual Reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
Asexual Reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
Metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
Stimulus
a signal to which an organism responds
Homeostaisis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Metric System
decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10

King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk
Microscope
device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye
Compound Light Microscope
microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
***(TEM ) Electron Microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
***(SEM) Electron Microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
Atom
basic unit of matter
Nucleus
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities
***Proton
? No textbook definition...?
Electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
***Neutron
? No textbook definition...?
Element
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
Ion
atom that has a positive or negative charge
Isotope
atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element
Molecule
smallest unit of most compounds
Compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Covelant Bond
[chemical bond- link that holds together atoms in compounds]
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
Ionic Bond
[chemical bond- link that holds together atoms in compounds]
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Van Der Waals Forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
Cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion
attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules
Mixture
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
Solution
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
Solute
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
Solvent
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
Suspension
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
Acid
[pH scale- measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14]
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
[buffer- weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH]
Base
[pH scale- measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14]
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution
[buffer- weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH]
Monomer
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
Polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
Monosaccharide
single sugar molecule
Polysaccharide
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
Lipid
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
Nucleic Acid
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
Nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
RNA
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
DNA
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
Protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
Amino Acid
compound with an amino group (−NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (−COOH) on the other end
Chemical Reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
Reactant
element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
Product
element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
Activation Energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
Catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Enzyme
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
Subtrate
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction