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Arts and Humanities
history final exam 10
Terms in this set (70)
The main theatre of war during the First World War, followed by the outbreak of war in august 1914. The German Army opened the Western Front by invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. (Battle of Somme and Battle of Marne and more)
League of Nations
Was an international organisation, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes.
Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during WW2
a settlement reached in September 1938 in which Britain and France agreed to let Germany annex part of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland)
effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each.
form of government with dictators who work to form a totalitarian state. Italy, Germany and Spain.
Nazi plan for the genocide or extermination of the Jews and other minority groups during World War II
The German politicians who signed the Armistice on November 11th, 1918, would become known as the "November Criminals."Advocates denounced the German government leaders who signed the Armistice.
German Government that was formed after ww1, leaders signed the Treaty of Versailles
Two provinces located between Germany and France. In the Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871) it was annexed by Prussia and remained as german territory until the end of world war I.
a policy of limiting a nation's international relations so that it can exist in peace and harmony by itself in the world (US's policy to not get involved in European affairs to avoid joining the war and maintaining their neutrality)
generally the final demand in a series of requests. An example would be Hitler's ultimatum to Austria (also known as the Anschluss).
No Man's Land
an unoccupied area between opposing armies during trench warfare
a policy in which a state takes political and economic control of areas beyond its borders
limiting the amount of something that people are allowed to have when there is not enough for everyone to have as much as they want
actions taken with the intent to destroy an ethnic, racial, or religious group; the planned and systematic extermination of an entire racial, ethnic, political, or culture group
A region in the north-eastern part of China. Seizure of the Manchurian city of Mukden (now Shenyang, Liaoning province, China) by Japanese troops in 1931, which was followed by the Japanese invasion of all of Manchuria (now Northeast China). The Japanese set up a puppet state called Manchukuo and placed the last emperor of China into power.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I, based on the ideas and plans of president Woodrow Wilson
a belief in increasing a nation's military strength as the way to become or remain powerful; the glorification of military virtues and ideals
trials the Allies held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II to hold Nazi leaders and other Germans accountable for war crimes and other atrocities they committed during the war
payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors. They are intended to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war
Battle of Stalingrad
marked the end of Germany's advances into eastern Europe and Russia. The second reason is that this battle was the first major German loss during World War II. After the Germans lost in Stalingrad, they did not advance any farther into eastern Europe or Russia.
Nazi Germany's secret police
a section of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of force or social, legal, or economic pressures
an economic system in which all resources are privately owned and markets determine how those resources are distributed
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
- Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
pact of steel
An alliance between Germany and Italy that led to Italy's disastrous involvement in WW2
ideas, allegations, and other information that is spread deliberately to further a cause or damage an opposing cause, and that is often exaggerated or false
United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
When the ancient monarchies of Austria, Russia and Germany plunged their countries into a world war which engulfed Europe in one of the bloodiest conflicts in history. (East part of the Germany which is Russia) Battle of Tannenberg and Battle of the Masurian Lakes
(9th of November 1938), also known as the crystal night, it refers to the night when jewish people, businesses and buildings were targeted by the nazis. Many consider it to be the beginning of the holocaust
was a brief international crisis sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco in April 1911
the reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons
international communist organization that advocated world communism. Supported other left wing parties around the world.
Germany's plan to defeat France in six weeks by invading at high speed through Belgium. Then the Germans armies could turn to fight the Russians, 1000 km away to the cast
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
France, Russia, and Great Britain
members of the communist/left-wing party members. member of a wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party
- believed that russian workers did not have class consciousness to lead a revolution
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
agreeing something from an aggressor to avoid conflict
- (such as in Czechoslovakia when Germany took parts of the Sudetenland)
the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.It was used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform
a situation in which progress by either side in a contest or dispute is blocked by the other side; a draw or deadlock
German for "lightning war," a military tactic that combined swift, massive, and highly coordinated attacks by planes, tanks, and infantry to overwhelm and quickly conquer an enemy
pride and devotion to one's nation; also the idea that a people with a common language, culture, and history should have its own nation-state
A formal agreement between parties to stop fighting.
A sovereign nation that existed in the present day Ethiopia. Invaded in 1935 by the italians as part of Mussolini's ideal to recreate the old roman empire.
the general that led the Allies' armies during the Ludendorff Offensive
- supreme commander of the Allied forces
Serbian nationalist who became the catalyst for World War I when he assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28th, 1914. The murder started a chain reaction that led to the beginning of the war only one month later
a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War IPAJ
English short-story writer, poet, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, and his tales and poems of British soldiers in India. He was the author of "The White Man's Burden."
President of France before WW1 who was clever, honest and outspoken.
King George V
Great Britain's ruler and is also the Emperor of India and other lands overseas. He had a little power back then because only the British monarchs can only make the laws.
US president who created the fourteen points which emphasized the right to national self-determination, hoping to bring the war to an end
the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953.
Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary before WW1; most of his family members were killed.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. During his rule, Germany's relations with Britain, France and Russia became strained
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
Tsar Nicholas II
was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule before WW1. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia's role in World War I led to his abdication and execution
archduke of Austria and heir apparent to Francis Joseph I; his assassination at Sarajevo triggered the outbreak of World War I
German politician, demagogue, and Pan-German revolutionary. He was leader of the Nazi Party, and rose to power in Germany
A political leader of the twentieth century. A Democrat, Truman was president from 1945 to 1953.
Italian political leader who became the fascist dictator of Italy from 1925 to 1945
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death
German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg, he represented the German Völkisch Freedom Party in the Reichstag
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The 32nd President of the United States; elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II
German chancellor in the 1920's. Known for contributing the mending of the german economy. He created a new german currency to battle the hyperinflation the nation faced due to the terms of the treaty of Versailles (notably on war reparations).
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