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56 terms

Abdomen ultrasound

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right hepatic vein
divides the right lobe into anterior and posterior segments
middle hepatic vein
vessel that runs in the main lobar fissure; vein that divides right and left lobes
left hepatic vein
divides left lobe into medial and lateral segments
right portal vein
supplies the right lobe of the liver; branches into anterior and posterior segments
left portal vein (horizontal segment)
vein that separates caudate lobe from medial segment of left lobe
left portal vein (ascending segment)
vein divides medial from lateral segment of left lobe
gallbladder fossa
located in main lobar fissure
ligamentum teres
along with falciform ligament, it divides medial and lateral segments of the left lobe of liver; recanalizes in cirrhosis
ligamentum venosum
separates the lt lobe from the caudate lobe; , Continuos with the teres/round ligament; a fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus venosus
riedel's lobe
inferior projection of right lobe
sonography of acute hepatitis
sonographic features: hypoechoic liver parenchyma, liver enlargement, hyperechoic portal vein walls
sonography of chronic hepatitis
sonographic features: hyperechoic liver parenchyma, small liver, decreased echogenicity of portal vein walls
granulomas
appear as small calcifications on ultrasound
pyogenic abcess (bacterial)
sonographic features: complex mass, echogenic Gas, reverberation artifact
Candidiasis (fungal abscess)
fungal infection, appearance "wheel within a wheel", "bullseye"
Echinococcal cyst (hydatid disease)
simple cyst to complex massappearance, may have water lily sign, daughter cysts are common; sheep; casoni skin test to diagnose
schistosomiasis
parasitic infection; intrahepatic portal veins occlude resulting in portal hypertension (cuz of eggs)
Cushing's syndrome
excess cortisol secretion associated with adrenal adenomas
Cushing's disease
excess cortisol secretion due to increased ACTH from a pituitary adenoma
Conn's disease
excess aldosterone secretion associated with adrenal adenoma
Hirsutism
may be caused by androgen secreting adrenocortical and ovarian disorders
right renal vein
short, drains directly into IVC
left renal vein
longer vein passes between SMA and Ao to IVC
adrenal neuroblastoma
most common childhood adrenal mass
adrenal hemorrhage
most common adrenal mass in newborn
multicystic dysplastic kidneys
most common neonatal abdominal/ renal mass
wilm's tumor
most common childhood renal mass
renal artery stenosis diagnostic criteria
renal artery/ aorta ratio (RAR) > 3.5;
>3.5 means there is at least 60% narrowing
resistive index formula
(peak systolic freq - end diastolic freq) / peak systolic freq
spermatoceles or epididymal cysts
occurs in epididymal head, anechoic, well defined; both can result from prior episodes of epididymitis
two common causes of acute scrotal pain
torsion of spermatic cord or epididymitis / orchitis
SMA doppler in fasting state
doppler waveform in this artery is high resistance in fasting state
SMA doppler in postprandial state
doppler waveform is low resistance, increased velocity after eating
TSH
thyroid stimulating hormone; produced by pituitary
Hypothyroidism
increase in TSH, T4/T3 decreases
Hyperthyroidism
decrease in TSH, T4/T3 increased
serum thyroid hormones
T4-Throxine, T3-Triodothyronine
papillary carcinoma
most common primary thyroid cancer
follicular adenoma
true thyroid neoplasm char by well defined mass, halo usually hypoechoic
follicular carcinoma
indistinguishable from follicular adenoma, encapsulated
medullary carcinoma
tumor associated with MEN syndrome
Graves disease
disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos
thyroid artery supply
superior (branch from ECA) and inferior (branch from thyrocervical trunk) thyroid arteries
thyroid venous supply
superior, middle drain into IVC, inferior thryoid vein drains into inominate vein
pseudoaneurysm
results from a defect in hte main artery wall, eg post catheter insertion. Must be a channel communication from main artery to pulsatile structure outside vessel walls.
true aneurysm
involve all three layers of the arterial wall and are best described as the weakening of the vessel wall. Can be fusiform and circumferential (most are) or saccular
normal intestinal wall measures
3-5mm thick in measurement depending on distention of bowel
pseudokidney sign
sonographic pattern of intestinal pathology, aka target sign, hyperechoic center
inflammatory appendix
sonographic criteria includes non compressible appendix, >6mm diameter, appendicolith (fecalith)
hypertrohic pyloric stenosis
neonatal patients(3-6wks) vomiting; criteria for diagnosis all will increase: pyloric muscle thickness, py channel length, py diameter
diverticulitis
colonic outpouchings (common involves sigmoid)
intussusception
teleschoping of intestinal lumen, causes bowel obstruction
portal hypertension
increase in blood pressure in the veins of the portal system caused by obstruction in the liver (often associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, now leading cause is hepatitis C), causing enlargement of the spleen and (portosystemic) collateral veins, ascites; portal vein size >13mm, pressure gradient normal is slightly higher than ivc; TIPS to lower portal pressure
cholangitis
Inflammation of the cystic &/or common bile duct
cholecystitis
an inflammation of the gallbladder that may occur as an acute or chronic process. Acute inflammation is associated with gallstones. Chronic condition of this results when inefficient bile emptying and gallbladder muscle wall disease causes a fibrotic and contracted gallbladder.
cirrhosis
sonographic findings include: hepatomegaly (acute), liver atropy ( chronic), caudate lobe enlargement, surface nodularity, fatty infiltration