Pearson Chemistry Final Exam selected vocabulary
Terms in this set (55)
these are mixtures of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal; ex: copper and zinc
shows the kinds and numbers of atoms of each element in a substance
the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal
electron dot structures
diagrams that show valence electrons as dots; also called the Lewis Dot Structures
A _______ is the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
the ions produced when atoms of chlorine and other halogens gain electrons
the electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds
These are composed of cations and anions but are electrically neutral.
in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
The electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms are ________________ _____________.
the attraction of valence electrons for positive metal ions
a compound composed of molecules (i.e. covalently bonded)
polar covalent bond (polar bond)
a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are NOT shared equally because the atoms have different electronegativities
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge resulting in a slightly positive portion and a slightly negative portion
one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
single covalent bond
the bond formed when two atoms share ONE pair of electrons
a chemical formula which shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or a polyatomic ion
coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
compound that contain one or more hydrogen atoms and forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
any atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
a substance that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
a compound composed of two elements and can be either ionic or molecular
any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
law of definite proportions
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small, whole numbers
an ion consisting of a single atom with a positive or negative charge
a tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and has a positive or negative charge
number of particles in one mole of a pure substance (element or compound)
Formula that shows the lowest whole-number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound.
The mass of one mole of an element. Found on the periodic table and equivalent to the atomic mass, but in grams instead of AMU.
the volume occupied by 1 mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP); ALWAYS 22.4 L
SI unit for amount of substance that contains Avogadro's number of particles
The relative amounts of elements in a compound.
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured; standard temperature is 0 degrees C, and standard pressure is 1 atmosphere (atm)
an atom, a formula unit, or a molecule
the mass in amus of an atom of an element
the description of a chemical reaction in which each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element and mass is conserved.
small whole numbers placed in front of the formulas in the equation in order to balance it; tells the ratio of the formulas in the equation
chemical reaction in which an element or compound reacts with O₂, producing CO₂ and H₂O.
a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products; AB → A + B
substances produced as the result of a chemical reaction
substances present at the beginning of a reaction
single-replacement (displacement) reaction
a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound; A + BC → AC + B
a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of the reactants and products.
the pressure resulting from collisions of atoms and molecules with objects
a device used to measure atmospheric pressure
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure
vaporization at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
the energy an object has due to its motion
the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
an empty space with no particles of matter
for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure
the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant
Combined gas law
the law that describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas
the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout
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