Chemistry 2019 Semester II Exam Review
Terms in this set (109)
new substance formed in a reaction
starting substance in a reaction
equation with each side having the same number of atoms of each element
equation that doesn't give the relative amount of reactants or products
activity series of metals
a list of metals in order of decreasing reactivity (used for single replacement reactions)
single replacement reaction
reaction that a single element replaces another element in a compound
single compound is broken down into simpler substances
oxygen reacts with another substance producing light/heat
P V = n R T
ideal gas law (the only one that deals with moles)
V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
Charles law (directly related)
P₁/T₁ = P₂/T₂
Gay Lussac's Law (directly related)
P₁V₁ = P₂V₂
Boyles Law (inversely related)
zero degree Celsius 760 mmHg
Example of STP
what formula must have reduced subscripts?
A triangle represents
What's the formula for diphosphorous pentoxide
N₂ + 3 H₂ → 2 NH₃
Know how to balance equations
N₂ + H₂ → NH₃
bonds are broken and new bonds form
What happen in a chemical reaction?
Conservation of Mass
chemical equations must be balanced to satisfy the Law of
water and carbon dioxide
Complete combustion reaction forms what two products
double replacement reactions occur between two
PbO₂ (after criss cross Pb₂O₄ they must be reduced)
how would you write lead IV oxide?
2 (H₂ N₂ O₂ and group 17)
Diatomic elements when by themselves will always have a subscript
A metal _____ another on the activity series will replace it.
often double replacement reactions will form a _______ from the solution
H₃PO₄ 3KOH → K₃PO₄ 3H₂O is what type of reaction
Mg(s) 2HCl(aq) → MgCl₂(aq) H₂(g) is what type of reaction
In a reaction the mass of products will always ____ mass of reactants
3 moles of reactants to 2 moles of total products (add the coefficients on each side)
Mg(s) 2HCl(aq) → MgCl₂(aq) H₂(g) how many moles of reactants to products is there in this equation?
gas particle travel in a ______ line until it collides with another object
SI unit for pressure
standard pressure in kilopascals
particles in metals and alloys are ______ moving even though it's a solid
most solids are _____ and difficult to compress
gas moves from an area of _____ pressure to area of ____ pressure
pressure would decrease if volume
combined gas law
Which law relates pressure, volume and temperature of a gas together
metal and nonmetals
ionic compounds are
ionic compounds and strong acids and bases are
Na₂SO₄ ∙ 5H₂O
sodium sulfate penta-hydrate is written like
shaking/stirring and added heat will _______ the rate at which a solute will dissolve in solvent.
salt and water
What are the products of an acid and base reaction
property of an acid
acid ionizing slightly in water indicates the acid is
acetic and carbonic acids
Acids that are weak
example of a weak base
example of a strong base
if one atom is oxidized another is
what's transferred during a redox reaction?
2K + H₂SO₄→ K₂SO₄ + H₂ in this example, what gets oxidized?
Whatever is being reduced is called the _______ agent
a noble gas configuration
sharing or transferring electrons to form compounds is to be stable forming
N N (should have a triple bond and two electrons on the end of both Nitrogens)
draw electron dot structure for N₂
O₂ needs two electrons each so they will form a ______ covalent bond
simplest whole number ratio of atoms
ionic compounds show
CH₄ produces what shape?
What is the shape of P₂
Which intermolecular force is the weakest?
network solids (like diamonds)
Which kind of solid has the highest melting point?
which type of ion ends in ide?
loses 1 electron
Group 1 metals tend to _____ to be stable.
loses 2 electrons
Group 2 metals tend to _____ to be stable
Transtion metals must have a ____ ______ since they have more than one common ionic charge or oxidation number
Group 13 elements like Al have a ____ charge
ate or ite
Most polyatomic ions end in
cations have a ___ charges
When forming ionic compounds, criss cross oxidation numbers and reduce if needed. Al and O
binary molecular (covalent) compounds are written with_________ to indicate the correct subscript.
Greek prefix for four
Greek prefix for seven
Greek prefix for eight
Greek prefix for nine
Which of these is a molecular compound? K₂S or SO₃
Acids produce ____ ions in water
Bases produce _____ ions in water
Binary acids begin with hydro and end in ___
How would you name H₃PO₄
How would you name H₂S
When an acid with a polyatomic ion ends in ite, you change the ending to ____
When an acid with a polyatomic ion ends in ate, you change the ending to ___
Iron II chloride (reverse crisscross to find Roman numeral)
penta and di
Greek prefix for 5 and 2
Chemical reactions rearrange atoms to form
symbol for dissolved in water
symbol for gas
substances on the left side of the yield sign
substances on the right side of the yield sign
What isn't used up in the reaction but only speeds up the process?
In single replacement reactions to occur, the element alone on the left side must be ______ on the activity series of metals than the element alone on the right side of the yield sign.
What reaction type is this H₂ + O₂ → H₂O
What reaction type is this CH₄ + O₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
The calculation of quantities in chemical reactions is called
Which reactant gets used up first in a reaction?
When an equation is used to calculate the amount of a product you should get during a reaction it is said to be the
actual yield from lab/theoretical yield X 100 =
What's the equation to find your % yield?
inversely (Boyles law)
Pressure and Volume are _____ related
directly (Charles Law)
Volume and Temperature(K) are _______ related
Property of a base
Symbol for Hydrogen ion
Acids will have a pH ____ than 7
The process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution.
The higher the pH is above 7, the _____ the base is.
mole to mole relationship
What the bridge that connects one compound to another compound in a chemical reaction?
Give an example of a triprotic acid
This is placed in the bottom flask during a titration to identify when the acid/base reaction is complete because it changes color.
.76 Molarity HCl (Moles/Liters)
What is the molarity of a HCl solution that has 2.5 moles of HCl in 3.3 liters of solution.
125 mL (M₁V₁ = M₂V₂) (8 x V₁ = 2 x 500)
How many mL of the 8 M stock solution of HCl do I need in order to make 500 mL of a 2 M HCl solution?
Review equations sheet that was handed out.