Why did Martin Luther question the Roman Catholic Church?
He didn't agree with the sale of Indulgences, believed faith was the only salvation, etc. (Other reasons posted in the 95 Thesis)
What are Luther's overall ideas?
Luther believed that there shouldn't be the sale of Indulgences, that Salvation only comes through good, and he believed that the church was a community of believers instead of the papacy.
What did the German princes think of his idea?
The (Protestant) German princes liked it because it allowed them to seize property, and caused the Catholic Church to lose its hold on the princes.
Why did Catholic France support the German Protestants?
France didn't want Germany (Habsburghs) to gain any more power.
How did Luther's ideas affect the Peace of Augsburg?
It allowed German Princes to choose catholicism or lutherism in the Habsburgh Empire. (Con: It ignored the existence of Calvinism.)
How were John Calvin's ideas different than Luther's? Who are the elect? Predestination?
Calvin put less emphasis on individuals of the church, and believed government should be based after scripture. Predestination is the belief that from the moment you are put on earth god already knows who is going to hell and who to heaven. (The Elect)
Why did the English Reformation occur?
Henry (8th) wanted annulment, due to the fact he hadn't yet produced an heir to the thrown, but the pope said he couldn't have an annulment so Henry made himself head of the church in order to have more control.