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a process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than organisms with other characteristics
an inherited characteristic that enhances us organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving factors with which they interact; a biological community and physical environment
an interaction between two species in which one species, the predator, eats the other, the pray
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it
an organism that makes its own food by photosynthesis, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms
the process by which plants, autotrophic protists, and some bacteria use light energy to make sugars and other organic food molecules from carbon dioxide and water
an organism that cannot make its own food and must obtain them from consuming organisms or their organic products
a sequence of food transfers from producers through one to four levels of consumers in an ecosystem
only 10% of energy in each organism is taken in by the predator when eaten; other 90% is lost
carbon in the form of carbon dioxide gas being emitted by living organisms on the planet when they make energy
burning of gas, wood, oil, etc. by humans to make electrical energy which emits large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere
a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge; found in the nucleus of an atom
a subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom
an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons (valence electrons)
a weak chemical bond formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom is attracted to the partially negative atom
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid; water has a high surface tension because the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules
a measure of the relative acidity of a solution, ranging in value from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic); pH = potential hydrogen, refers to the concentration of hydrogen ions
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in bacteria and archaea
a type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; all organisms except bacteria and archaea have these
everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles
a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects cell and helps maintain its shape
an organelle found in plants and photosynthesis protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide
1) an atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons 2) the genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell
the spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated
in comparing two solutions, the one with the greater concentration of solutes; cells in such a solution will lose water to their surroundings
in comparing two solutions, the one with the lower concentration of solutes; cells in such a solution will take up water from their surroundings
a solution having the same solute concentration as another solution, thus having no effect on passage of water in or out of the cell
molecules consisting of simple single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides), and other multiunit sugars (polysaccharides)
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