AP Psychology (Unit 14): Social Psychology
Terms in this set (38)
What is social psychology?
the study of how behavior is influenced by the environment (other people, a situation)
What are distributional attributions?
explanations for behavior are based on a person's disposition
- good people do good things, bad people do bad things
What are situational attributions?
explanations for behavior are based on external, situational factors
- any person is capable of good or evil, depending on the situation
What is the fundamental attribution error?
the tendency to rely on dispositional taster than situational factors when explaining an action or behavior
What is compliance?
changing behavior in response to an explicit request
What is the foot in the door effect?
once you agree ti a smaller request, you are more likely to agree to a larger follow-up request (that you would have initially declined)
What is the door in the face effect?
refusing to comply w/ an initial request makes one more likely to comply w/ a more reasonable follow-up request
What is the lowball procedure?
after agreeing to something ,the cost in increased...having already committed, you are less likely to break your commitment
Who is Solomon Asch?
- studied conformity
- 75% subjects conformed at least 1x
- conformity rate=33%
- peak conformity=5-7 people
What was Asch's experiment?
- matching the correct line from three choices
- one confederate (actor) answers wrong answer second to last
- some trials, subject hears unanimous wrong answer
What is social support?
w/ an ally, conformity disappears
What is normative social influence?
our desire for approval (or avoid disapproval) shapes our behavior
What is informational social influence?
conforming because we want to be accurate (facts yield a change in attitude/behavior)
Who was Stanley Milgram?
Yale psych prof. interested in obedience and authority (specifically from interest in Holocaust)
What was Milgram's experiment?
- subjects=teachers, confeds=learners
- teachers applied paste to hand of learner before trails, also given sample shock
- after incorrect answer, teacher gave learner shock (increasing voltage each time)
What were the results of Milgram's experiment?
- he initially believed that only 4% of subjects would shock to 300 volts
- actual: 100% (45/45) of subjects went up to 300 v
- 65% went up to max shock (450 v)
Who is Phil Zimbardo?
did the Stanford Prison experiment
What was the Stanford Prison Experiment?
24 students volunteered and were divided into 2 groups: prisoners and prison guards.
Discovered that a person's behavior in a role is pre determined by the expectations and definitions of that role.
Student paying the role of the guard was harsh and unrelenting in some instances.
What is the dispositional behavior in this experiment?
guards acted bad because they are bad people
What is the situational behavior in this experiment?
guards are good people put in a bad situation
What is the criticism of the experiment?
bad science/experimental procedure...not controlled/multiple variables
- Zimbardo was accused of coaching the subjects to act a certain way
- guards acted the way they thought they were supposed to
Who is Kitty Genovese?
- raped + murdered in Queens, NY (1960s)
- neighbors heard and saw but failed to act (bystander effect)
What is the bystander effect?
the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
What is diffusion of responsibility?
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
What is audience inhibition?
people are reluctant to help in front of others for fear of overreacting or "making a scene"
What is pluralistic ignorance?
conforming to the group's apathy (other people's inaction leads to own inaction)
What is social loafing?
The tendency for individuals to put forth less of an effort when working in a group than when working alone.
What is groupthink?
modification of the opinions of members of a group to align with what they believe is the group consensus
What is cognitive dissonance?
the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.
What is deindividuation?
loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
What is group polarization?
the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members.
What is social facilitation?
improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
What is scapegoat theory?
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
What is the just-world phenomenon?
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
What is in-group bias?
tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group
What is the mere exposure effect?
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
What is the reciprocity norm?
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
What is the prisoner's dilemma?
a game in which players act in rational, self-interested ways that leave everyone worse off