63 terms

physical science final exam review

How close a measurement is to the true value
scientific notation
A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.
scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
speed formula
size of the gap between two places
an increase in speed
speed in a given direction
the distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point
time graph
a graph that represents data that occur over a specific time
A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place.
transverse waves
a wave in which the particles of the medium move perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling
longitudinal waves
a wave in which the particles move parallel to the path of the wave
the tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
the distance (measured in the direction of propagation) between two points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration
the height of a wave's crest
electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation
the particular auditory effect produced by a given cause
the material through which a wave travels
doppler effect
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation)
the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)
converging lens
lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus
diverging lens
a lens such that a parallel beam of light passing through it is caused to diverge or spread out
angle of incidence
the angle between an incoming wave and an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the new medium
endothermic reaction
a chemical reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat
exothermic reaction
a chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat
balancing chemical equations
keep mass of products and reactants the same by adjusting coefficients as necessary
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
Positively charged particles
negatively charged particles
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
binary compunds
one that is composed of two elements
covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
valence electons
one of the electrons farthest away from the nuclues atom
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
atom that has a positive or negative charge
energy forms
gravitational energy, kinetic energy, heat, elastic energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, radiant energy, nuclear energy, and mass energy
law of conservation
matter cannot be created or destroyed
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
stored energy
the transfer of energy or heat through a material
states of matter
solid, liquid, gas
phase changes
the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another. Melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation, and deposition are six common...
phase change diagram
gives the temperature and pressure at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid or gas.
- the lines between each region is where the two phases exist in equilibrium.
any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.
circular motion
Type of motion where velocity is constantly changing because direction is continuously changing
newton's laws of motion
Laws proposed by Isaac Newton that explain how force and motion work.
newton's universal law of gravitation
states that every object in the universe attracts every other object
shows magnitude and a direction of a force
the energy of the flow of electrons.
parallel circuit
a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit
series circuit
a circuit having its parts connected serially
open circuit
an incomplete electrical circuit in which no current flows
closed circuit
a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates
short circuit
a connection that allows current to take an unintended path