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163 terms

Biology H-9

STUDY
PLAY
Substitution(Mutations)
Point mutation because 1 base has been changed
THE FAT CAT ATE
THE FIT CAT ATE
Insertion(Mutations)
Frame shift; really bad
THE FATY CAT ATE
THE FAT YCA TAT
Deletion(Mutations)
Frame shift; really bad
THE FA CAT ATE
THE FAC ATA TET
Inversion(Chromosomal Mutations)
ABC.DEF
AED.CBF
Deletion(Chromosomal Mutations)
ABC.DEF
AC.DEF
Duplication(Chromosomal Mutations)
ABC.DEF
ABBC.DEF
Translation(Protein Synthesis)
mRNA>>protein
each 3 letters(codon) translates into an amino acid, then to a protein
Transcription(Protein Synthesis)
DNA>>mRNA
AACCGA
UUGGCU
occurs when DNA is expressed
Replication(Protein Synthesis)
DNA>>DNA
TTGGCT
AACCGA
occurs in S-phase
codon
3 letters of mRNA
4 bases of DNA
A-adenine
G-Guanine
T-Thymine
C-Cytosine
Which gender goes with which chromosome pair in sex linked genes?
XX=girl
XY=boy(the y doesn't get a gene)
Where does mRNA go after leaving the nucleus?
To the ribosome
GMO
Genetically modified organism
3 types of RNA
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
How do you cut DNA?
EcoRI finds CTTAAG or GAATTC and cuts between the G and A
Selective Breeding
Choosing traits in agriculture that we want
rRNA
ribosomal-RNA in ribosome
tRNA
transfer-carries amino acids to ribosomes
mRNA
messenger-takes genetic code from nucleus to cytoplasm(ribosome)
Translocation(Chromosomal Mutations)
ABC.DEF
ABC.JKL
GH.IDEF
Recombinant DNA
DNA from more than one organism species joined in the lab
Transgenicorganism
DNA in organism from more than one species
Define a gene?
a part of a DNA that codes for a single person
Dependent Variable
Responding variable
Independent Variable
Manipulated variable
Why are the F1s purple when the P1s are green?
The dad was homozygous/dominant and P1 was homozygous/recessive so the baby had a 100% chance of being purple
Characteristics of Life
CO-cellular organization
R-reproduction
D-DNA
G-growth and development
E-evolution
R-respond to environment
M-metabolism
S-stable and internal balance
Hypothesis
A testable explanation for a question or problem related to an observation
Which organism is the smallest on this list?
E Coli bacterium
Coffee bean
Hepatitis virus
Amoeba
Hepatitus virus
Scientists discovered a fossil of what may have once been alive, from a Mars rock. It looks like a strand of connected circles. Which one of the eight characteristics of life did it appear to exhibit?
Cellular Orginization
A raw potato releases oxygen gas when a special solution (hydrogen peroxide) is added. A baked potato does not. Which of the eight characteristics of life appears to be demonstrated in the RAW potato from THIS activity?
Metabolism
In pond water under a classroom light microscope, what characteristic of life do you observe directly?
Response to environment
If you wanted to create a culture of microorganisms to observe under a microscope, what would be the best to add if you start off with a container of pure water?
Dusty hay from lawn clippings
Bob wants to do an experiment to test a new plant fertilizer that guarantees to double the growth rate for seedlings. he sows three sets of seedlings with similar soil and light conditions. Set A gets pure water. Set B gets water with fertilizer and Set C gets no water at all. The control is?
Set A
When using a microscope you first...
find a specimen on the slide and focus using low power, then go to high power
Observation is important in laboratory science today because...
Discoveries are still possible all around us if we observe carefully
A controlled experiment allows the researcher to isolate and test
a single variable
All forms of life on Earth
absorb and use materials
The goal of science is to
learn the cause of events in nature
The purpose if an experiment is to
test a hypothesis
To measure a small volume of liquid, scientists use units called
milliliters mL
True or False. We all originated from stardust before life began.
True
Inference
An educated guess
Theory
A unified explanation for a broad range of experiments
Polymer
Large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
Nucleus
Center of an atom
Polar Molecule
Molecule with unequal distribution of charge
Solution
Mixture in which one substance is distributed evenly in another
Enzyme
Protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
2
Situations such as a pink flower in which one allele for a gene, white flower, is exhibited in a blended form with another allele, red flower, for that gene are called
incomplete dominance
A cross of a black chicken(BB) and a white chicken (WW) produces all speckled offspring (BBWW). This type of inheritance is known as
codominance
Variation in human skin color is an example of diet, environment, and...
polygenic traits
Dihybrid
A cross involving two different traits
Fertilization
The uniting of the male and female gametes
Homozygous
The alleles present for a trait are the same
Heredity
The passing of characteristics from parents to offspring
When during the cell cycle are chromosomes visible?
Only during cell division
Which event occurs during interphase?
The cell grows
True or False. Interphase is usually the longest phase
True
Which of the following is a phase of mitosis?
cytokinesis
interphase
prophase
S phase
Prophase
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?
metaphase
What are the phases of mitosis in their proper sequence?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is the role of the spindle during mitosis?
It helps separate the chromosomes
During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each containing 2, 4, 8, or 16 chromosomes?
4
What is the purpose of mitosis?
Separating sister chromatids into identical daughter groups
In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the...
nucleus
DNA is copied during a process called
replication
During DNA replication, a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with the bases...
GATCCA
Unlike DNA, RNA contains what?
uracil
How many types of RNA are there?
3
During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed where?
inside the nucleus
How many codons are needed to specify three amino acids?
9
What happens during the process of translation?
The cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
Genes contain instructions for assembling what?
Proteins
Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code?
mRNA
True or False. The instructions for making some proteins are not specified by genes
False
A mutation that involves one nucleotide(base) is called a...
point mutation
Which of the following is not a (point) gene mutation?
substitution
insertion
deletion
substitution
substitution
If a specific kind of protein is not continually used by a cell, the gene for that protein is...
expressed differently or turned on and off at different times.
What does selective breeding produce?
Desired traits in offspring
What is the ultimate source of genetic variability?
Mutations
What is one function of gel electrophoresis (fingerprinting)?
Separating DNA fragments by size
The process of making changes in the DNA code of a single living organism is called what?
Genetic engineering
A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different species is known as what?
Recombinant DNA
On an electrophoresis gel, band B is closer to the positive end than band A. So...
Band B moved faster than band A
Which of the following contains all of the others inside it?
plasmid
transformed bacterium
foreign gene
recombinant DNA
transformed bacterium
A gene such as a fluorescent gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry plasmid (and the foreign DNA) from those that don't is called a...
genetic marker
What is an advantage of using transgenic bacteria to produce human proteins?
Transgenic bacteria can produce human proteins in large amounts inexpensively
To produce transgenic bacteria that makes insulin, what step did the scientist have to use first?
Use a restriction enzyme to cut out the insulin gene from human DNA
What kind of cell or cells were used to make Dolly?
body cell and egg cell
Linked genes are...
always on the same chromosome
How many chromosomes are found in a normal body cell karyotype
46
In a pedigree a circle represents what?
A female
Colorblindness is found in males more than females because?
The allele for colorblindness is recessive and located on the X chromosome
The purpose of gene therapy is to...
cure genetic disorders
The chromosome abnormality that occurs when one chromosome breaks off and is added to a different chromosome is called what?
nondisjunction
A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is...
reproductive isolation
The phenotypes for a typical polygenic trait can often be expressed as...
a bell-shaped curve
Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates...
share a common ancestor with sea stars
Monkeys on two continents, although similar, show numerous genetic differences. What factor is probably most important in maintaining these differences?
geographic isolation
A change in the sequence of DNA is called
mutation
The two main sources of genetic variation are...
gene shuffling and mutations
Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galapagos, what did he wonder?
If all species living on different islands had once been members of the same species
What is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution?
Body structure can change according to the actions of the organism
The species of finches that Darwin found on the islands displayed different structural adaptations. What was one of the adaptations that Darwin noted?
The birds' different-shaped beaks
Lamarck's theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of what?
The actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures
Why does the geographic isolation of two populations of a species tend to increase differences between their gene pool?
Because it prevents interbreeding between the populations
What is the type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals?
The founder effect
What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plats whose flowers open late in the day?
Temporal isolation
In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal wings. This observation would tend to disprove which idea that evolution is based on?
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
What is one similarity between natural selection and genetic drift?
They both involve a change in a population's allele frequencies
Natural selection can be best defined as what?
The survival and reproduction of the organisms that are genetically best adapted to the environment
Homologous Structures
Structures that have a similar evolutionary origin and structure but are adapted for different purposes, such as a bat wing and a human arm
What book did Charles Darwin publish in 1859
On the Origin of Species
In a population of finches in which one group of birds has a short, parrot-like beak and another group has a long, narrow beak, what process has probably occurred?
disruptive selection
Overproduction
When a species creates more offspring than can survive
When individuals at only one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is what?
directional selection
If an allele makes up one fourth of a population's alleles for a given trait, its relative frequency is what percent?
25%
A polygenic trait can have...
many possible genotypes, producing many possible phenotypes
Hawaiian honeycreepers are a group of birds with a similar body shape and size. However, they vary greatly in color and beak shape. Each species occupies its own niche and is adapted to the foods available in its niche. The evolution from a common ancestor to a variety of species is an example of what?
Divergent evolution
The flying squirrel of North America closely resembles the flying phalanger of Australia. They are similar in size and have long bushy tails and skin folds that allow then to glide through the air. The squirrel is a placental mammal, while the phalanger is a marsupial. These close resemblances, even though genetically and geographically separated by great distances, can best be explained by what?
convergent evolution
All the genes of all member of a particular population make up the population's what?
Gene pool
James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists suggested what?
That Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred
Vestigial Structures
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
Convergent Evolution
When two totally different species look the same but are not related
Divergent Evolution
When two species look totally different but are related
In genetic drift, allele frequencies change because of what?
Chance
Geographical Isolation
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water
A species is a group of similar organisms that can do what?
Mate with each other and produce fertile offspring
What did Darwin infer from his observations of organisms in South America and the Galapagos Islands?
A small number of different plant and animal species had come to the Galapagos Islands from the mainland
According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to what?
The possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase?
whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards
While looking for fossils on an eroded hillside, you discover fossil coral and fish in one layer. In a layer just above, you find the fossil imprint of a fern frond and some fossil moss. Assuming the rock has not been disturbed, what is the most probable conclusion?
A sea has been replaced by land in ancient times
Four groups of organic compounds
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Carbohydrates
made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; living things use this as their main source of energy; Ex: starches and sugars
Lipids
made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms; living things use this to store energy; Ex: fats, oils, and waxes
Nucleic Acids
made up of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon , and phosphorus; they store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information; Ex: DNA, RNA
Proteins
made up of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are polymers of molecules called amino acids; some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes; some are used to form bones and muscles; others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight diseases
Catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction Ex: enzymes
Ribosomes
small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm and on the Rough ER; assemble proteins
Rough ER
where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cells
Smooth ER
is involved in the making of lipids
Golgi
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell
Mitochondria
organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Chloroplast
organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy
Cytoskeleton
helps the cell to maintain it's shape, also involved in movement
Stages of Cells
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Prophase
Chromatin solidify into chromosomes, centrioles form spindles
Metaphase
Chromosomes lines up in the middle of the cell
Anaphase
Chromosomes pull apart, splitting in half
Telophase
Two nuclear membranes form, cell begins to pinch apart, chromosomes "blur" into chromatin
When was the Earth created?
4.5 billion year ago
When was the first fossil?
3.5 billion years ago
Cambrian Explosion
544 million years ago; 1st multicellular animals
What era did life move onto land?
Paleozoic Era
Permian Extinction
90% of ocean life dies out; about 250 million years ago
In what era was the Age of the Reptiles?
Mesozoic Era
KT Extinction
65 million years ago; dinosaurs and other animals of the time went extinct
Cenozoic Era
Age of the Mammals; 65-1.8 million years ago; means "Recent Life"
When did "Lucy" exist?
4 million years ago
When did anatomically modern humans first exist?
130,000 years ago