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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
US and French Revolution
Terms in this set (20)
Taxation Colonies before and after revolution/Articles of Confederation
before the American Revolution there were too many taxes and too much government control. After the revolution there was too little government and too few taxes. The Articles of Confederation were weak
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson. It said that people had rights of life, liberty and the persuit of happiness. If government did not protect these rights you had the right to alter or ablish the government.
occured after the American Revolution. Was a reaction to the weak Articles of Confederation.
Influenced the US Constitituion. Seperaton of Powers and checkes and balances with branches of government is included in the US constitution.
Taxation without Representation
Conlonists protested the Stamp Act which placed a tax on paper products as "taxation without representation."
Bill of Rights
Influences by enlightenment philosophers like Voltaire and John Locke
Napoleon, his rise and reforms
he set up laws known as the Napoleonic Code, a meritocracy, a new financial system and banking.
The Three Estates
Clergy, Aristocracy and "everyone else." First and Second estate paid very few taxes. Third estate represented 98% of the population of France. Many were very poor and the tax burden fell on their third estate. The third estate embraced the enlightenment ideas that would give them equality.
Estates General Meeting
meeting to discuss financial crisis and tax issues in France in the spring of 1789. How many votes each estate would get during the meeting became an issue
Reign of Terror
The Committee of Public Safety arrested, tried and executed anyone suspected of being "anti-revolutionary." Robespierre and Danton headed the committee. In the end Robespierre was killed by his fellow revolutionaries. Noone was safe during the reign of terror.
head of the Committee of Public Safety. Killed which ended the Reign of Terror
France's attempt to Blockade Britain during their wars. Failed because the French navy was not as good as the British navy. Great Britain organized its own blockade against the French during this time period
Congress of Vienna
The main goal was to restore kings to the thrones of Europe
July 14, 1789 - an angry mob stormed the Bastille prison looking for gunpowder and guns.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
Gave the goals of the revolution. "Liberty, equality, franternity" became the slogan of the revolution. Begins with the phrase "men are born and remain free and equal in rights."
Napoleon's reforms to France
government run schools system created, he set up a comprehensive system of laws (Napoleonic Code)
Describe the Reign of Terror
A period of time when the committee of public safety ruled France. As a result of paranoia and the threat of outside and inside forces this committee quickly arressted, tried and executed anyone they suspected of being "anti revolutionary." Thousands in Paris and ouside of Paris died during this time period. Robespierre and Danton were the heads of the committee and in the end both would die.
Explain the Causes of The French Revolution
The causes o fhte French Revolution were the three estates. The Clergy, Aristocracy and everyone else had vastly differnet lives. The first and second estate paid mosly no taxes while the third estate although mostly poor paid the most in taxes. The price of bread and the enlightenment also played a role in this revolution as people started to understand that they had rights and that the government should help to protect these rights.
Proximity and Paranoia - Differences between US and French Revolution
Proximity means closeness and paranoia is when you are afraid everyone is out to get you. During the French Revolution the king of France was in France. There were people in France that wanted the king restored to the throne. There were also kings in neighboring countries, specifically Prussia and Austria. Also the people of France were paranoid about what was going to happen to them as a result of the revolution. They stormed the Bastille and initiated the Great Fear. All of these were because they had the perception that the first and second estate were going to attack them. This made the French and US revolutions very different. There was no chaos in the US revolution as there was in France and the king of England was 3000 miles away when we revolted. As a result, the US revolution was much "cleaner."
The three events which led to Napoleon's downfall are the Peninsular War, the Continental system and the invasion of Russia. Napoleon tried to fight Spain and put his family on the throne in Spain. Guerilla warfare there lost him thousands of troops. Under the Continental system Napoleon tried to blockade England from Europe. England organized its own blockade destroying the French's ability to resupply. Finally the invasion of Russia was a disaster. The Russians were far more determined not to give up their country. They burned fields and Moscow itself and Napoleon was forced to retreat in winter. Thousands of French troops died and Napoleon's army was decimated.
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