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Future projections of climate change depend on emissions and removal of carbon dioxide (CO2). Currently, about _____% of emissions are from fossil fuels and cement making processes.
About 50% of carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere and ~25% is removed by land (vegetation) and ~25% by oceans
Climate change model results vary due to uncertainties in future factors such as:
Projected CO2 concentrations for different emissions scenarios:(RCP2.6 -lowest emissions to RCP 8.5 -highest emissions) CO2 between about___________________________ ppm by 2100.
CO2 between >400 and >1000 ppm by 2100
Climate model simulations suggest that by 2100, global average temperatures will become warmer by up to ________ degrees C.
Climate model simulations suggest that by 2100, precipitation particularly at northern mid-high latitudes, is expected to
Sea Level Rise is projected to be about _____________________ by 2100.
1/2 to 2 ft
If current trends continue, late-summer sea ice will disappear by _______________AD, and winter sea ice will reach very low volumes not long after.
Precipitation is expected to ____________________ over the 21st century, particularly at northern mid-high latitudes.
Experiments indicate that vegetation will continue to take up CO2, known as the 'fertilization effect' forever.
A warming climate can impact human health including human developmental effects, mental health and stress-related disorders, and even neurological diseases and disorders.
Surplus heat energy transferred by the atmosphere and oceans to _______________ latitudes.
Which image above shows Cyclonic conditions in the Northern Hemisphere?
L Red top, counter clockwise, B
Surface ocean circulation patterns are driven by ________________________________.
Surface currents have a great impact on the exchange of energy and moisture between the oceans and lower atmosphere
The Ekman Spiral created by the frictional drag of wind on the surface, moves the NET (average) transport of water 90 degrees to the _________________ of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere
Upwelling moves water ___________________.
The Gulf Stream current , a western boundary current of the N. Atlantic Gyre and an important role in the pole ward transfer of heat and salt, transports ~ 4 billion cubic ft/sec, more than all the world's rivers combined.
The North Atlantic Deep Water formation occurs when warm, salty Gulf Stream water moves north,
cools, becomes _________________ dense, and sinks
The Gulf Stream current warms the European subcontinent
Carbonic acid is created when CO2 mixes with H20 forming H2CO3, Carbonic Acid, a ____________acid
The pH scale measures the carbonic ion concentration of a solution.
The greatest amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean is in the
Dissolving Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into seawater is _____________the pH of the Earth's oceans.
Ocean acidification leads to ____________carbonate ions (CO32-) for organisms to form CaCO3 shells
Which is NOT a factor that affects ocean carbon uptake
Vertical gradient cycle
Rising atmospheric CO2 is absorbed in ocean and _________pH
Ocean pH dropped 0.1 pH unit from 8.2 to 8.1 since the industrial revolution and is expected to fall another ______________pH units by end of the century.
0.3 to 0.4 pH
The current ocean pH of 8.1 is expected to be about _________ by 2100
A fuel cell is a devise that converts chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction.
A fuel cell is a devise that converts chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction
Individual fuel cells are combined to form a fuel cell ___________ to increase the voltage to get more POWER.
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and is a readily available fuel
Hydrogen fuel is produced on the CSULA campus by the process of ______________.
An advantage of using hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is that the byproduct released is only ____________.
water and heat
There are currently __________stations to fill up a hydrogen car.
As the number of hydrogen fuel stations increases, the price of the fuel and cost of the car should _________significantly
Energy used to break the bonds of Hydrogen can be from Fossil Fuels
Hydrogen is highly flammable.
An alternative energy source one that is an alternative to fossil fuel and considered to be clean, renewable, and free energy sources
The cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source
______________uses mirrors or lenses to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area; a heat receiver in which the heat drives a steam turbine to generate electricity.
Concentrating solar power (CSP)
"Solar" energy can supply power in remote locations
Solar" energy needs high maintenance and does not last long.
The largest provider of the world's electricity (after fossil fuels) is ___________________________.
___________________ is from harnessing the power of moving water to generate electricity.
__________________ was the first major hydro-electric power plant in the world.
Niagara Falls power Company
The __________________ is the most powerful hydro-electric project in history.
Three Gorges Dam
Hydro-electric energy can negatively affect fish and wildlife habitats.
A ______________________of hydro-electric energy is that there is a long construction period and the possibility of flooding.
There are off-shore wind farms and on-shore wind farms in which electricity is produced as turbines convert kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power.
The largest wind farm in the world with several thousand turbines is the _______________ Wind Farm
Gansu Wind Farm Project
Wind farms are generally located in rural areas that might be otherwise picturesque which is a(n) ____.
Energy in which steam and hot water turns the turbines, generates electricity is cooled and injected back into the Earth is called _____________________.
____________________ Energy has the smallest land footprint of any major power source
Geothermal energy- advantage
Fuels from organic matter (ex. wood, sugar cane fibers, rice, animal manure) can be converted to other usable forms of energy is called ____________.
Biomass energy can convert waste into energy, helping to deal with waste and is easily scalable.
Buildings, roads, and other infrastructure replace open land and vegetation causing urban regions to become warmer than their rural surroundings known as _____________________.
The average yearly air temperature of a city with ≥ 1 million people can be ~2 -5°F warmer than its surroundings and can be as high as 22°F warmer at night.
Higher temperatures can promote air pollution such as ground-level ozone formation
Know 4 strategies to reduce heat pollution
tree and vegetative cover
The fuel for nuclear power plants comes from radioactive materials that release energy by the process of nuclear ________________.
Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles
______________ can be stopped by a sheet of paper clothing or a few centimeters of air but can be hazardous if ingested or inhaled.
______________pellets are the fuel used to make the nuclear reaction that makes that heat.
There is _____________________percent of nuclear wastes that are high-level wastes
_____is the country that owns the largest number of nuclear reactors in the world
_______is the country that generates the largest share of electricity from nuclear energy.
_______ is the country that is developing the most nuclear reactors.
There are about ______________ nuclear reactors in the world
There are about ______________ nuclear reactors in the United States
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