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Setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizatinal performance againse those standards.

best practices

The most successful solutions or problem-solving methods that have been developed by a specific organizatin or industry.

Busines process reengineering (BPR)

The radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive tasks in order to improve cost, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of informational technology.

Competitive forces model

Model used to describe the interaction of external influences, specifically threats and opportunities, that affect an organization's strategy and ability to compete.

Computer-aided design (CAD) system

Information system that automates the creation and revisin of designs using sophisticated graphics software.

core competency

Activity at which a firm excels as a world-class leader.

cycle time

The total elapsed time from the begiinning of a process ot its end.

disruptive technologies

Technologies with disruptive impact on industries and businesses, rendering existing products, services and business models obsolete.

domestic exporter

Form of business organization characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home county of origin.

efficient customer response system

System that directly links consumer behavior back to distribution, production, and supply chains.


Form of business organization in which a product is created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons relies heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources.

mass customization

The capacity to offer individually tailored products or services on a large scale.


Form of business organization that concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing.

network economics

Model of strategic systems at the industry level based on the concept of a network where adding another participant entails zero marginal costs but can create much larger marginal gains

primary activities

Activities most directly related to the production and distribution of a firm's products or services.


Product or service's conformance to specifications and standards.

six sigma

A specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities; used to designate a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs.

strategic transitions

A movement from one level of sociotechnical systemto another. Often reqired when adopting strategic systems that demand changes in the social and technical elements of an organization.

support activities

Activities that make the delivery of a firm's primary activities possible. Consist of the organization's infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement.

total quality management (TQM)

A concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an organization.


Truly global form of business organization where value-added activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand and local competitive advantage.

value chain model

Model that highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm's products or services where information systems can best be applied to achieve a competitive advantage.

value web

Customer-driven network of independent firms who use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market.

virtual company

Uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas, enabling it to ally with other companies to create and distribute products and services without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations.

workflow management

The process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently from one location to another.

What is the role of business process reengineering (BPR) in enhancing competitiveness?


How do competing on a global scale and promoting quality enhance competitive advantage?


How do information systems help businesses use synergies, core competences, and network-based strategies to achieve competitive advantage?


How does Porter's competitive forces model help companies develop competitive strategies using information services?


How do the value chain and value web models help businesses identify opportunities for strategic information system applications?


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