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PSY 353 chapter 3
Terms in this set (45)
the visual receiving area of the brain, called area V1 to indicate that it is the first visual area in the cortex. also called striate cortex.
The hypothesis that an area's appearance is influenced by the part of the surroundings that the area appears to belong to. This principle has been used to explain the perception of lightness in the Benary cross and White's illusion.
the competition between the center and surround regions of a center-surround receptive field, caused by the fact that one is excitatory and the other is inhibitory. Stimulating center and surround areas simultaneously decreases responding of the neuron, compared to stimulating the excitatory area alone
the receptive field is excitatory in the center and inhibitory in the surrounding area; can be the opposite(((NOT DONE))
center-surround receptive field
A receptive field that has a center-surround organization.
t6he 2-mm-thick layer that covers the surface of the brain and contains the machinery for creating perception, as well as for other functions, such as language memory and thinking.
A neuron in the visual cortex that responds best to moving bars with a particular orientation.
the intensity difference that can just barely be seen between two areas. This is often measured using gratings with alternating light and dark bars
type of neural code in which different perceptions are signaled by the pattern of activity that is distributed across many neurons. this contrasts with specificity coding, in which qualities are signaled by activity in a specific type od neuron
easy problem of consciousness
the problem of determining the relationship between physiological processes like nerve firing and the perceptual experience. Note that this involves determining a relationships, not a cause
A cortical neuron that responds best to lines of a specific length that are moving in a particular direction.
Area of a receptive field that is associated with excitation. Stimulation of this area causes an increase in the rate of nerve firing.
excitatory-center, inhibitory-surround receptive field
a center surround receptive field in which stimulation of the center area causes and excitatory response, and stimulation of the surround causes and inhibitory response.
a process by which neurons adapt to the specific environment within which a person or animal lives.. This is achieved when neurons change their response properties so they become tuned too respond best to stimuli that have been repeatedly experienced in the environment.
A neuron that responds selectively to a specific feature of the stimulus such as orientation or direction of motion.
fusiform face area
(FFA): an area in the human inferotemporal (IT) cortex that contains neurons that are specialized to respond to faces.
A hypothesized type of neuron that responds only to a very specific stimulus, such as a person's grandmother.
hard problem of consciousness
the problem of determining how physiological processes, such as ion flow across nerve membranes, cause different perceptual experiences
a display that results in the illusion of dark areas at the intersection of two white "corridors" this perception can be explained by lateral inhibition.
inferotemporal (IT) cortex
an area of the brain outside Area V1 (the striate cortex) involved in object perception and facial recognition.
Area of a receptive field that is associated with inhibition. Stimulation of this area causes a decrease in the rate of nerve firing.
inhibitory-center, excitatory-surround receptive field
a center surround receptive field in which stimulation of the center causes an inhibitory response and stimulation of the surround causes an excitatory response.
the perception of shades ranging from white to grey to black.
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
the nucleus in the thalamus that receives inputs from the optic nerve and, in turn, communicates with the cortical receiving area for vision.
inhibition that is transmitted laterally across a nerve circuit. in the retina, lateral inhibition is transmitted by the horizontal and amacrine cell.
One of the most famous problems in science. How do physical processes such as nerve impulses or sodium and potassium molecules flowing across membranes (the body part of the problem) become transformed into the richness of perceptual experience (the mind part of the problem)
neural correlate of consciousness (NCC)
Connections between the firing of neurons and perceptual experience,
the capacity of the nervous system to change in response to experience can change the orientation selectivity of neurons in the visual cortex and how tactile experience can change the sizes of areas in the cortex that represent different parts of the body.
operations that transform electrical signals within a network of neurons or that transform the response of individual neurons
a lobe at the back of the cortex that is the site of the cortical receiving area for vision.
One of the small optical units of the compound eye of arthropods
orientation tuning curve
a function relating the firing rate of a neuron to the orientation of the stimulus
A form of visual agnosia characterized by difficulty in the recognition of people's faces; caused by damage to the visual association cortex
a neuron's receptive field is the area on the receptor surface (the retina for vision; the skin for touch) that, when stimulated, affects the firing if the neuron.
the process in which a person or animal is selectively exposed to one stimulus, and then the effect of this exposure is assessed by testing with a wide range of stimuli. typically, sensitivity to the exposed stimulus is decreased.,
The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over generations, to become more frequent.
A procedure in which animals are reared in special environments. An example of selective rearing is the experiment in which kittens were reared in an environment of vertical stripes to determine the effect on orientation selectivity of cortical neurons.
The process through which the nervous system represents the qualities of the incoming stimulus—whether auditory or visual, for example, or whether a red light or a green one, a sour taste or a sweet taste.
simple cortical cell
Also called bar detector or edge detector. A cell in the visual cortex that responds best to an edge or a bar that has a particular width, as well as a particular orientation and location in the visual field.
The effect that occurs when surrounding one color with another changes the appearance of the surrounded color.
the idea that a particular object is represented by the firing of a relatively small number of neurons
Type of neural code in which different perceptions are signaled by activity in specific neurons.
The visual receiving area of the cortex, located in the occipital lobe
an area in the brain that is involved in controlling eye movements and other visual behaviors. This area receives about 10 percent of the ganglion cell fibers that leave the eye in the optic nerve.
visual receiving area
the area of the optical lobe where signals from the retina and LGN first reach the cortex.
A display in which two rectangles are perceived as differing in lightness even though they both reflect the same amount of light and even though the rectangle that is perceived as lighter receives more lateral inhibition than the one perceived as darker.
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