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8th grade Midterm Social Studies
Terms in this set (73)
a group of laws passed in the former Confederate states right after the Civil War. These laws were passed to limit the rights of newly freed African Americans and to continue the beliefs that had existed under slavery.
gave all male U.S. citizens the right to vote, regardless of their race or previous status as enslaved people.
granted citizenship and legal rights to African Americans. It established that anyone who was born or naturalized in the United States was a citizen and that the states could not deny the rights of any citizens.
federal agency that Congress created in 1865 to help newly freed African Americans. Established hospitals, provided food, jobs, and stressed the importance of education.
the period in United States history right after the Civil War. During this period the South was readmitted to the United States and laws were passed to protect the rights of newly freed African Americans.
ratified in 1865, formally abolished slavery in the United States.
"Separate but equal"
is a doctrine, or belief, that was established as a law in the United States in the late 1800s. This doctrine stated that segregation, or the separation of African Americans and white Americans in public places, was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal.
Booker T. Washington
strongly encouraged African Americans to focus on gaining vocational training and economic independence rather than fighting for equal political rights.
sometimes included in a new law if there are existing situations to which the new law might not apply.
were used to deny suffrage to African Americans.
included in voting restriction laws stated that anyone who had been allowed to vote before the Fifteenth Amendment passed would not be required to meet new voting requirements. It extended this exception to anyone whose ancestors had been able to vote.
Jim Crow Laws
made racial segregation—separation by races—legal. attempted to take away these rights and segregate the races. Schools, public transportation, restaurants, and most other public and private facilities were kept legally separate for the different races.
proved whether a potential voter could read and write. Because many African Americans were former enslaved peoples and had, thus, never had access to schooling, this excluded them from registering to vote.
NAACP (The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
an organization that works to oppose racism and protect African Americans' civil rights. founded in 1909 a group that included W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, and others. In its more than 100-year history, the group has focused on national issues affecting African Americans.
became the leading African American civil rights organization in the country. Among its early goals were the passage of an anti-lynching law and the expansion of voting rights for African Americans.
Plessy v. Ferguson
was a case in 1896 in which the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public places was legal. This case created the doctrine of separate but equal. The justices determined that separate and supposedly equal facilities for white Americans and African Americans did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment requirement of equal protection of the laws.
collected on individual people instead of on their property or their income. are sometimes a requirement for voting. passed to keep African Americans from voting. Because most African Americans in the South were very poor, they could not afford this
highly committed to emancipating and protecting the rights of African Americans. After the Civil War, they also wanted to enact harsh penalties against the former Confederate states. Created a plan to put the South under military rule and required the Southern states to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment before they could be readmitted to the Union.
W. E. B. Du Bois
wrote that African Americans needed to demand equal political and social rights as well as more opportunities for higher education. helped form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an organization that works to end discrimination and segregation.
a process used in manufacturing to ensure that there is no interruption in work. The introduction made factories much more efficient, which meant many more products could be made than before. Machines and workers were organized so that material flowed seamlessly from one step to the next.
a period of change for the economy and society of much of the world. Many countries transitioned from primarily agricultural societies, in which most goods were handmade, to societies in which machines were used to manufacture goods.
replaced the stagecoach and wagon train and was an alternative to reaching California by sea. It helped to speed the development of the West, but in doing so, it also ended the traditional way of life for many Native Americans.
served as the main processing center for European immigrants to the United States. closed as an immigrant processing center in 1954. the East Coast equivalent of Angel Island in California's San Francisco Bay.
area, often in a city, in which a culturally distinct group of people live separately from people of other groups. Examples include Chinatown or Little Italy.
Americans were deeply troubled by the increase in immigration to the United States. They worked to lessen foreign influence in American life by refusing to hire immigrants and otherwise limiting their civil rights.
are positive conditions or events that are associated with a particular place and that make migrants choose to move to that place. can be economic, such as higher standards of living or better job opportunities for workers. can also be social or political, such as religious or political freedom. Others may be more personal, such as having family members or members of one's ethnicity in a given location.
are negative conditions or events that are associated with a particular place and that make migrants choose to leave that place and migrate elsewhere. can be economic, such as poverty or a lack of jobs, or they can be political or civil conditions such as war or religious or political persecution. can also be environmental, such as droughts, famines, or other natural disasters.
an overcrowded and often run-down apartment building typical of big U.S. cities in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Many single-family homes were turned into housing for multiple families. New apartment houses were built using shoddy construction methods and cheap materials. The rooms in some had no windows and thus no light or ventilation.
At the time of the American Civil War, turned a modest investment in a railroad sleeping car company into a great deal of money. introduced many innovations into the steel industry, such as inexpensive mass production and vertical integration of supplies.
The Gilded Age
The 1870s and 1880s in the United States - a time when some Americans became extraordinarily wealthy. It was also a time of serious political corruption.
The Haymarket Riot
occurred on May 4, 1886 on the North Side of Chicago, Illinois. occurred after workers at Chicago's McCormick Harvesting Machine Company went on strike in support of the eight-hour workday. It was a deadly clash between striking workers and police. became a symbol of the struggle for workers' rights. It also created strong backlash against labor leaders.
John D. Rockefeller
was an American industrialist who founded Standard Oil Company. built his first oil refinery in western Pennsylvania. In just two years, it became the largest oil refinery in the area.
an aggressive businessperson who soon began buying out his competitors. By 1882, had nearly established a monopoly on the U.S. oil industry. He placed the stock of Standard Oil and other companies he owned in a trust, the first such trust in the United States.
an organization of workers. They join together to ensure fair wages, benefits, and working conditions for its members. generally represent workers from specific trades or industries.
the control, by a single owner or group, of most or all of the means of producing or selling a good or service. strict example..., the owner controls the entire market for the product. This reduces or eliminates competition, meaning that the owners can set almost any price for their product because no substitutes, or only poor ones, are available.
applied to business tycoons who used unethical and often illegal business practices. They coupled these methods with far-reaching political influence to amass fortunes of historic proportions.
supply and demand
refers to the willingness and ability of producers to offer goods and services for sale. states that as the price of something increases, producers are willing to sell more of it. If the price decreases, producers will sell less of it.
refers to the desire for a good or service and the ability to pay for it. states that as the price of something falls, consumers will buy more of it. If the price increases, consumers will buy less.
is a person who takes significant risks to start a new business enterprise, but who also gains significant rewards if the business succeeds.
ratified in 1919, prohibited the production, sale, and transportation of alcohol in the United States. as it did lower the amount of alcohol consumed. It also led to an increase in criminal activity
officially extended to women the right to vote,
The Progressive Movement
arose in the late 1800s as a response to problems caused by the rapid urbanization and industrialization of the United States after the Civil War. These problems included corrupt political machines, slums, poverty, and the exploitation of workers.
a community center, or a neighborhood house. addressed issues related to the many new immigrants arriving in the late 1800s. dedicated to the development and improvement of city neighborhoods.
the term that President Theodore Roosevelt used to describe his program of reform. aimed to make sure that people were treated fairly and had equal opportunities to succeed. broke up trusts that used unfair practices. involved laws such as the Meat Inspection Act and the Food and Pure Drug Act. These laws protected consumers from unhealthy food and drugs.
the right to vote to elect leaders or to vote on policies and laws.
an anti-alcohol social reform movement in the United States education and moral persuasion to try to convince people to stop drinking alcohol.
pushed for Progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy. spent time in the West. He also fought in Cuba during the Spanish American War. First Volunteer Cavalry, the Rough Riders, were lauded as heroes of that war. promoted reform programs known as the Square Deal, which he said would help ordinary Americans.
an American novelist who influenced the Progressive movement. one of the muckrakers. best known for his novel The Jungle, published in 1906. In it, he wrote about the unfair treatment of immigrant workers and the terrible working conditions in the Chicago meat-packing industry. The public outcry, however, focused on the unsanitary conditions the book describes. The novel was instrumental in the passage of two important food-safety bills: the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.
instrumental in creating a plan for peace known as the Fourteen Points. His plan included the creation of an international organization known as the League of Nations.
is the type of foreign policy adopted by President Taft. He and Secretary of State Philander Knox believed that diplomacy could not only help international stability, but also extend American financial interests.
policy by which one nation controls another, usually smaller or weaker, nation. The controlling nation might take power by obtaining territory or by holding political or economic power.
In foreign affairs, a national policy to avoid or withdraw from economic, military, or political relations with other countries. A nation might refrain from creating military alliances. It might not participate in international economic activities or agreements. Instead the nation would focus on its own development.
a type of excessive nationalism or patriotism.
that the United States would not allow any European countries to establish colonies or use force in North or South America. wanted European countries to stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. in exchange the United States would stay out of any conflicts between European powers and would recognize existing European colonies.
it announces a refusal to take sides in a conflict or dispute. Suppose two nations waging war are both seeking assistance from the same third nation. That nation may decline to help either of the warring nations
Open Door Policy
It became the outline for relations between the United States and China for the first half of the 1900s. The policy declared that all European nations and the United States could trade freely with China.
is an artificial waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It is 50 miles long. The canal is one of the most important artificial waterways in the world, and controlling it enabled the United States to expand its commercial power in the early 1900s.
The Roosevelt Corollary
approach to foreign policy in Latin American and the Caribbean. The doctrine recognized European colonies in the Americas but asked that European countries not colonize any further in the Western Hemisphere. If they were to do so, the United States would view it as an act of aggression. Otherwise, the doctrine held, the United States would keep out of European affairs. Included the idea of the big stick policy. it was the right of the United States to "exercise international police power." If any Latin American nation did wrong, it was for the United States, not Europe, to intervene.
Spanish American War
It ended Spanish colonialism in the Americas and helped the United States establish itself as a force to be reckoned with in the Pacific.
type of reporting that exaggerates or sensationalizes stories to sell more newspapers.
The coded message suggested that Mexico form a military alliance with Germany. In return, it promised that United States' land would go to Mexico upon victory. British intelligence officers intercepted the message in January 1917 and were able to decode it.
British passenger ship. hit by a German torpedo off the Irish coast. The ship sank, and more than 1,100 of its 1,960 passengers and crew died. A number of those on board were U.S. citizens. increased anti-German feeling and was given as one justification for entering the war in 1917.
began as an alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary during World War I
was the alliance between Russia, Great Britain, and France before and during World War I. During the war, these countries were also known as the
is an act of war. Ships, troops, or aircraft may be used to prevent people, supplies, or other materials from leaving or entering an enemy country.
is loyalty and devotion to a nation, a feeling that the nation and its people are one and that the interests of the nation are more important than those of individuals or groups.
summarized President Woodrow Wilson's proposal for a peace settlement between the Triple Entente (the Allied powers) and the Central powers at the end of World War I.
It was used to negotiate peace at the end of World War I, although the Allies would call for further action under the Treaty of Versailles.
the spread of information to influence public opinion. may be true, false, or some combination of the two. The goal of spreading this is to gain support, usually for a political view or cause.
a government policy of restricting the use of certain scarce goods, usually during wars or other emergencies. Governments can implement policies by limiting the amount of particular goods that people can buy or by limiting the time during which people can buy these goods. The government may also promote informal policy, which means encouraging consumers to use less of certain goods but not forcing them to limit their consumption.
an approach to foreign policy that embraces the use of force. The government takes an aggressive stance toward other countries. often linked with imperialism.
type of land-based fighting that began in the U.S. Civil War. It reached its peak during World War I. armies dig deep trenches into the ground, where they live and sleep. These also shelter them from some artillery and small weapons fire. One disadvantage is that troops are kept in one spot. It is difficult to move elsewhere as needed. It is also extraordinarily uncomfortable.
Suffragists, led by former National American Women Suffrage Association president formed a more radical organization, called the Congressional Union, to draw attention to the cause. supporters went on hunger strikes, held parades, and generally engaged in more extreme actions than had NAWSA. On March 3, 1913—the day before President Woodrow Wilson's inauguration—the Congressional Union organized a massive suffrage parade in Washington, DC. Tensions between suffrage marchers and opponents gained national attention.
Carrie Chapman Catt
NAWSA president who proposed a more moderate plan for winning the vote. She relied on coordinated efforts from local and state suffrage associations across the country to gain support for the cause. The movement generated enough backing for several states, including New York, Michigan, and South Dakota, to grant women at least some voting rights. tirelessly promoted the passage of a national Constitutional amendment securing women's suffrage.
How the Other Half Lives collected photographs of tenement life that shocked middle-class Americans.
ratified in 1913, established the direct election of U.S. senators by the voters in each state. Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution had established the appointment of senators by state legislatures, and this amendment was needed to change that system.
Progressive reformers strongly supported this as a way to make the federal government more democratic and more representative of ordinary citizens' views.
was a social worker and feminist who fought for social and economic justice. opened own settlement house. called it Hull House which grew to some 13 buildings, including an art gallery, a coffee house, a gymnasium, a public kitchen, a music school, a circulating library, and many other facilities.
In addition to the founding of Hull House, worked to fight the root causes of poverty and for specific reforms such as factory inspection, protecting immigrants from exploitation, recognition of labor unions, and schooling for children. She advocated for laws to ban child labor and protect working women.
a volunteer cavalry during the Spanish American War, their efforts help U.S. forces help capture important ridges above Cuba's capital city Santiago. From this position, the American military forced the Spanish to flee and surrender the city. Although many were killed in the battle, Teddy Roosevelt became a national hero.
During his two terms in office, Roosevelt approved federal government lawsuits against 43 other companies that held monopolies in different industries. Government actions dissolved the oil trust of John D. Rockefeller and the tobacco trust of James B. Duke. Because of Roosevelt's efforts to use the federal government to break up monopolies, he gained yet another nickname,
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