Group Processes Ch. 10 Group in a School Setting
Terms in this set (139)
may benefit from groups as much if not more than any other age group. The reason is that members of this population are among the least empowered in society and they face some of life's biggest challenges. Individuals of this population are still growing in multiple directions and preventive or remedial interventions on any level can yield rich dividends for years to come.
Children are not:
miniature adults. They have specific needs, wants, wishes, frustrations, joys and fears, some of which are best shared in a group. In growing up, developmental, emotional, and behavioral problems affect more than 20% of all children.
a time when children are ready and able to learn. In children's group, timing as well as content is crucial.
2 types of groups used with children under 14 yrs.
Psycho-educational and counseling groups are used to help children learn new skills and become aware of their values, priorities, and communities. Even task groups have been shown to promote children's social and emotional learning.
Research shows what on children's groups
that approx. 70% of the groups take place in schools. Small groups give students the opportunity to "explore and work through their social and emotional challenges with others who are experiencing similar feelings"
Children spend a great deal of time...
interacting in groups; so these settings are ideal places to conduct both preventive guidance work as well as remedial counseling regardless of the type of group involved. Peer influences are powerful in middle school environments and can be utilized to promote development and achievement.
Developmental and non-developmental factors
determine what types of groups are set up for children.
include variables such as age, gender, and maturity level of those involved
in contrast, encompass less predictable qualities, such as the nature of the problem, the suddenness of its appearance, its severity, and the present coping skills of children and their families.
Emphasis of children's groups:
regardless of the type of intervention, is on children's healthy development. Groups for children generally take the form of guidance and psycho-education (learning a new skill or experience) or counseling and psychotherapy (rectifying or resolving problematic behaviors, assumptions, or situations).
Group guidance and psycho-education
usually involve the group worker in the role of an information giver with a large group of children. The group worker functions as an instructor or a guide and may work directly with teachers.
Guidance and psycho-education groups focus on:
improving skills and awareness in personal and interpersonal areas, such as values, attitudes, beliefs, social maturity, and career development, but they are not limited to these general growth topics. These groups are more remediation based and deal with such personal and interpersonal concerns as "self-concept, social skills, interpersonal relationships, problem solving, academic skills, communication skills, and values"
Counseling and psychotherapy groups focus on:
more specific concerns and in greater depth. Not as many individuals can be included. Greater personal risks are taken in these groups and are held in a less structured environment than is found in group guidance and psycho-education.
Structure: counselors ask children to listen or do new activities according to certain guidelines
Involvement: consists of getting the group to be active participants
Processing: composed of sharing ideas
Awareness: consolidating what was learned in the guidance time.
Activity group guidance (AGG)
activities are developmental in nature and typically include coordinated guidance topics. For example in promoting self- understanding and understanding of others, puppets, drawings, and music are often used. These artistic activities are nonthreatening and enhance interaction and motivation in ways that language alone cannot do.
AGG session has 3 stages:
1. A 10 minute warm-up in which leader discuss an appropriate guidance principle
2. A planned activity that attempts to implement the guidance principle for the day
3. A follow-up discussion, lasting about 5 to 10 min in which group reviews the impact of the guidance principle activity on themselves.
this activity requires children to sit in a circle with paper and crayons. They are asked to draw a green triangle in the middle of their paper. Then each child takes turns giving a command as to what to draw next. When the activity is over, the children show their drawing and talk about the differences as well as how easy or hard it is to understand the perspective of other group members.
4 techniques for under-motivated children in psychosocial groups:
1. Using guided fantasy
2. focusing on specific behaviors to be improved
3. creating positive affirmations (positive statements about oneself)
4. employing visualizations
variety is the essence of group guidance and psycho-educational lessons.
3 approaches for group counseling:
1. crisis centered
2. problem centered
3. growth centered
are formed because of some emergency, such as conflict between student groups. These groups usually meet until the situation that caused them to form has been resolved. Group counseling provides individuals with a means to examine their situation and to think together about some possible solutions.
are small groups set up to focus on one particular concern for example, coping with stress. They are useful to students who have one major difficulty such as being under too much pressure- for instance, children who have demanding parents who insist they excel in school and extracurricular activities, such as athletics or dance.
focus on the personal and social development of students. Their purpose is to enable children to explore their feelings, concerns, and behaviors about a number of everyday subjects and to make changes if they wish. An example is an educational/guidance group Waliski and Carlson (2008) conducted with a preschool class. 8 session group preschool children were taught social and emotional skills and given the opportunity to practice these new skills. Overall result was an increase in skills and decrease in aggressive behavior
Setting up Children's groups
group workers must consider the maturity of the children and can be accomplished by establishing regular contacts with them. Determining topics for the group to explore can be accomplished through the use of "sociograms, self-concept inventories, incomplete sentence activities, and children's drawings"
7 Questions that need to be answered before group begins
1. What medium will be most used in group communication?
2. What structure will be employed?
3. What materials will be used in the group?
4. How will group members be recruited and screened?
5. How long will group sessions meet?
6. How many children will be in the group?
7. What will the gender mix be?
Children under 12 should:
participate primarily in groups that involve play and action, using techniques such as sociodrama, child drama, and psychodrama.
Active play therapy
for young children under age 9 in groups, specifically, water colors, finger paints, clay, and sand.
Action-centered view of groups
professionals who believe that children can be taught the proper ways to express themselves verbally and that verbally oriented groups are viable with even very young children
Highly structured groups
have a "predetermined goal and a plan designed to enable each group member to reach this identified goal with minimum frustration." Such groups are usually used for teaching skills that may be transferred to a wide range of life events. Often, groups are highly structured at their beginning and become less structured as group members get to know one another better.
4 approaches to using materials and structure:
1. unstructured material, unstructured approach
2. unstructured material, structured approach
3. structured material, structured approach
4. structured material, unstructured approach
is one of the best ways to recruit members by providing parents, teachers, and students with an _______ that describes what the group is about and what is expected of its members.
Pregroup assessment methods
one way to screen potential participants. Can be done by an informal method (having a child write out what he or she wishes to get from a group) and formal method (using instruments specifically designed for this purpose such as Group Psychotherapy Evaluation Scale or the Group Assessment Form.
Selections is crucial because:
for group success members satisfaction and identity with the group will influence group cohesion and ultimately affect personal outcomes.
Children's group session length and number
opinions vary on how long group sessions should last and how many children should be included in a group. One general guideline is the younger the children, the shorter the session and the smaller the group.
Decisions regarding the sex for children's group
On the issue of gender, there is considerable disagreement.
1. Gazda (1989) contends that around the time of puberty girls begin to mature more rapidly than boys, and the two genders do not mix well.
2. Ohlsen (1977) advocates that groups include both girls and boys because he feels that group counseling is the safest place for both genders to learn to cope with each other regardless of social or sexual development.
Decisions regarding age for children's group
a general rule of thumb is to group children with those who are within about 1 chronological year of one another.
when a particular event stimulates thinking and discussion among students. Many group guidance leaders operate from an atheoretical base in regard to the process of change. They stress developmental learning. Others are more integrative or holistic. Yet a third group of leaders concentrate solely on a single area of change.
5 basic seated arrangements
1. Row formation
3. Semicircle arrangement
4. In and out circles (fishbowl)
5. Discussion teams.
In group counseling, leaders have more of a tendency to:
have a theoretical orientation and act accordingly more so than in group guidance.
Adlerian group leaders
functions as an open, democratic individual who is based in the here and now. These leaders vary in their techniques, but in working with children's groups, they are prone to emphasize encouragement and the law of natural consequences.
leaders of this approach put far greater emphasis on the facilitative quality of the counselor as a person... The counselor's personhood is the basic catalyst that prompts group participants to make progress or not
Rational-emotive behavior therapy groups
Leaders stress the teaching of rational thinking.
Transactional analysis (TA)
Leaders prefer to work with children in groups to promote the confrontation of games and help children learn basic ______ concepts by seeing them demonstrated in themselves and others
Gestalt theory groups
leaders promote awareness and support personality change from within.
which are the most popular for the treatment of children focus on teaching children appropriate prosocial skills and helping them eliminate dysfunctional behavior
those children who have moved to a new community and a new school. Counseling was found to be helpful as they adapt to their environments.
students filled in the 8 segments by:
Segment 1: drawing an expressive face
Segment 2: writing 3 words that described themselves
Segment 3: listing 2 of their hobbies
Segment 4: writing 3 present feelings
Segment 5: identifying where they were born
Segment 6: describe where they would like to be in the present
Segment 7: list an activity they would like to do
Segment 8: write about a unique special personal quality
is an alternative model that stands for:
P- Personal interactions
N- Need to know
the _______ model has also been found to be a motivator for increasing daily school attendance of third-grade boys
BASIC ID approach
I- interpersonal relations
Succeeding in schools lessons
Created by Gerler and Anderson (1986). This series of 10 lessons deals with modeling after successful people in school while learning to feel comfortable and responsible. It focused on promoting cooperative efforts; enhancing student self-concept; and learning appropriate school skills, such as listening and asking for help.
Student Success Skills (SSS) model
a group intervention for elementary and middle school students related to school success in academic and social performance. 25 school counselors who trained in this structured small group counseling approach worked with midrange to low-performing students and saw them improve in both academic performance and behavior compared to a control group.
Children's characteristics from counseling and psychotherapy groups include:
They volunteer, are committed to discussing what genuinely concerns them, focused on learning new behaviors, interested in helping other group members learn new behaviors, and believe that their counselor or group leader and parents have confidence in their ability to learn and implement new behaviors.
Middle school counselors can implement group work by:
recognizing its value; improving their involvement with teachers; discussing the rationale for more group work with their principals; obtaining additional training if necessary; and becoming self-motivating through initiating groups in cooperation with principals, faculty, and students
Groups for adolescents can be:
life saving and life changing
Advantages of group guidance and psycho-educational activities for children are:
1. leader sees a large number of students in a brief amount of time and work in a preventive fashion
2. allows leader to use inside (teachers) & outside (community personnel) resources to help children learn to help themselves
3. promotes security and comfort in children, promotes peer interaction, enhances learning of ways to handle problems
Limitations of group guidance & psycho-educational groups for children are:
1. too impersonal at times & fail to help children in practical ways
2. may include too many individuals & prohibit general discussion or the exploration of certain subjects
3. may stereotype the counselor as a presenter of knowledge and inhibit leader from being spontaneous
Group counseling with children advantages:
1. more efficient than individual counseling more can be seen
2. more realistic because is social interaction base, allows sharing and learning through peer modeling & feedback
3. promotes support, acceptance, relaxation, risk taking, & resources for involved members
4. may free leader to make strategic interventions with members
Limitations of group counseling with children are:
1. takes more time to develop trust and closeness
2. more difficult to safeguard confidentiality and to include all members actively in group discussions & activities
3. more difficult to organize group counseling activities requires school system & or parental permission
4. requires leaders and members to be sensitive to topics that are inappropriate for group & counteract, nonproductive behavior of select group members
defined as the age span from 13-19 but extended to include some individuals up to age 25. Is a challenging period in life. It is a time of both continuity and discontinuity marked by extensive personal changes.
Challenges adolescents face:
Psychological and social issues related to their growth and development.
Adolescents must learn to cope with:
crises in identity, sexual concerns, peer and friendship pressures, dramatic physical changes, career and college decisions, and movement into greater independence. They are often filled with loneliness, anger, turmoil, frustration, and self-doubt. Life events, both positive and negative, affect their lives
Adolescents are expected to:
behave maturely in their relationships with their peers and adults. They are given some adult privileges, such as obtaining a driver's license and registering to vote. However, most adolescents experience frustration and stress in being independent, on one hand, and yet dependent of their parents and school or community authorities, on the other hand.
Adolescents turmoil may also be:
exacerbated because teens are officially denied some of the most tempting status symbols of adulthood, such as sanctioned sex and the legal consumption of alcohol. At other times adolescents are pressured into adult roles too soon, such a facing combat in the military. Little wonder that the world, for many adolescents, is uneven and confusing.
Adolescents natural groups are:
their family group at home, the learning group at school, possibly a work group, and social group. Peers are especially important to adolescents, influencing the developing young person for better or worse. Society labels such groups as the "right" or the "wrong" crowd, and strongly identify with the values generated by their primary peer groups.
Developmental psychoeducational groups
usually focus on common concerns of young people, such as identity, sexuality, self-manangement, self-advocacy, depression, parents, peer relationships, career goals, and educational or institutional problems. Such groups are conducted in community agencies, school settings, or both. Traditionally they have an adult leader
Top 5 group topics for adolescents
2. communication skills & peer helping
3. decision making
4. study skills
Non-developmental counseling and psychotherapy groups
tend to concentrate more on concerns adolescents have with adults and society, such as drug or alcohol use, school problems (e.g. poor grades, truancy), or deviant behavior. Usually schools, agencies, or courts establish these groups, and troubled adolescents may either volunteer or be forced to attend.
Teachers as Counselors (TAC)
an exemplary program for helping volunteer adolescents who experience high levels of stress and lack support. This program was designed and implemented by the Spring Independent School District (Houston, Texas). Teachers who interact with students in mature, effective, and nurturing ways are selected and trained to work with adolescents. The concerns of these adolescents may be situational or developmental, such as having trouble making new friends, failing courses, having problems with physical size, or hassling with parents.
3 constructive ways of handling participants negative feelings and resistance
1. Meet with these adolescents individually before the group starts
2. Work with the resistance that uncooperative adolescents bring rather than fighting it
3. Respond to adolescents' sarcasm or silence with honest, firm, and caring statements
Adolescents sometimes out of fear of being...
rejected or ridiculed, will withdraw or hold back on topics they wish to discuss. In such cases, nonverbal cues, such as body posture or facial expression, will take on added significance.
Action-oriented group techniques
Another way to help adolescent group members unify their thoughts and actions is to use ____________, such as role playing and "I" statements.
center around the genuine interests of participants. They hold group members' interest and invite their participation. ______ can vary from those that are serious, such as dealing with loss, to those that are pragmatic, such as explaining how to lead a class discussion.
planned group exercises and activities. Associated materials will also generate discussion and participation, help the group to focus, promote experiential learning, provide the group leader with useful information, increase group comfort, and facilitate fun and relaxation.
Sand tray group counseling with adolescents
this type of group, members build small words with miniature figures in individual trays of sand and share their worlds as they are willing. With adolescents the typical miniature collection must be supplemented with "leisure, sport, and hobby items, such as miniature basketball, skateboards, radios, and items that symbolize academic endeavors
Screening adolescent groups
takes place as it would with any other age group. Leaders look for members who will fit together well in regard to maturity, purpose, and background. A key component of the screening interview is to keep it from becoming too formal.
is a multidimensional concept, but basically it refers to members positively identifying with others in the group. Leaders must be careful in selecting members who can relate well to one another not just to the leader.
those that include boys and girls especially if the focus is on social relationships and dating, it may be necessary for group leaders to develop methods to get young adolescent males involved so they will get the maximum benefit from the experience.
as compared with adolescent girls, are usually less comfortable, less involved, and less likely to achieve as positive an outcome in groups that emphasize interpersonal relationships.
Adolescent girls as a group are:
more interested in social relationships and are more at ease in sharing. "Adolescent _______ also perceive counselors and counseling 'as significantly more attractive and trustworthy,' than do adolescent males"
Leaders role in adolescent groups
is multidimensional. In addition to keeping up with the interpersonal and intra-personal dynamics of group members, leaders must be extremely self-aware. They must be willing and courageous enough to explore, and perhaps relive, much of their own adolescent experience so that it will not interfere with their work and result in counter-transference.
Adolescents respond well to leaders who are:
open with them, enthusiastic, and caring. These types of leaders are true to themselves first and are good role models for those whom they lead. They personify congruence and are able to laugh at themselves and joke with others in a productive way.
The first dimension of a 3-dimensional model by Denholm and Uhlemann (1986). It includes 3 age groupings: children, preadolescents, and adolescents.
the second dimension which is composed of 4 approaches to group work: activity, discussion, counseling, and therapy.
the third dimension, includes 3 components: theory, research, and practice
3 Preventive measure about confidentiality
1. Leaders must state rules about confidentiality during the first session and every session thereafter
2. Leaders must also deal immediately with any potential breach in confidentiality and determine what has occurred.
3. If confidentiality is broken, the leaders must either enforce rules or have the group itself deal with the problem.
Leaders of adolescents groups face challenges:
Understanding, yet firm; facilitative, yet controlling; and active, yet trusting of the group process. How the group leader's acts will depend on the composition, focus, and maturity of the group as well as the background of the leader.
6 basic response make leaders more effective facilitators:
1. Usling feeling-focused responses
2. Clarifying or summarizing responses
3. Employing open-ended questions
4. Giving facilitative feedback
5. Providing a simple acknowledgment
6. Presenting linking
Low facilitative responses:
1. advice/evaluation (telling people how to behave or judging them)
2. Analyzing/interpreting (explaining the reasons behind behavior without giving the person an opportunity for self-discovery)
3. Reassuring/supportive (trying to encourage someone, yet dismissing the person's real feelings)
6 problems in Adolescent groups are:
1. Outright disruptiveness
2. Hesitancy or reluctance to engage with others
4. attempting to monopolize
5. inappropriate risk taking
6. overactivity or giddiness
in adolescent groups ________ is more common than in adult groups because of the level of group member maturity. _______ can range from verbally yelling at other group members to attempting to pick a fight
3 ways of combating disruptive behavior include:
1. Going over the rules of the group so that the inappropriate behavior does not occur because members are informed or warned of consequences.
2. Allowing members of the group to discuss the situation and decide what to do with the disruptive member
3. As last resort, the disruptive person can be dropped from the group (used only if nothing else can be done)
Hesitancy or reluctance to engage with others
can be a result of underdeveloped verbal or social skills. Sometimes members want to cat productively but simply do not know how. In such cases, engaging the problematic member either within the group context or in a leader-member conference can help to correct the situation. During these encounters, the motivation of the member can be determined.
occurs when a group becomes divided into different and opposing subgroups. Such divisiveness may be caused by accidental circumstances, such as chance encounters of members outside the group setting or by premeditated plans.
is not unique to adolescent groups. Reasons for it, which have been discussed previously, are related to anxiety of a group member or members. ________ may also be used as an attention-getter or a way of avoiding people or situations.
Inappropriate risk taking
sometimes group members share information too soon or reveal inappropriate information. This type of behavior is not unusual with adolescents, especially those who have limited awareness of themselves and others
Overactivity or Giddiness
it is attributable to several factors: the natural energy of individuals in this age group, embarrassment, the leader's or the group's failure to set limits, or boredom with the group or the topic being discussed.
Strengths of adolescent groups
1. Natural environment (they spend a great deal of their time in groups
2. Life skills may be taught through modeling, role playing, group discussion, and brief lectures
3. A sense of belonging is created
4. Provide for multiple feedback that help personal growth and development.
5. Opportunity to help one another. It is often through helping others that an individual's own self-esteem and self-confidence is increased
Limitations of adolescent groups
1. Not enough appeal to motivate the participants
2. Deny any problem and believe there is a stigma associated with discussing problems with others
3. Pressure that they feel to conform to behaviors in which they do not believe.
4. Individuals may not be given enough attention
5. Poor group communication and interaction
6. Concerns legal and ethical issues
is a somewhat nebulous term. It implies that a person has reached physical, mental, social, and emotional maturity. Yet, as numerous researchers note, _____ is a muti-dimensional stage of growth often characterized by a certain unevenness and unpredictability.
20-40 years in which identity and intimacy are two intense primary issues
40- 65 years in which needs related to generativity become the main focus
is as much mental process of considering oneself older as it is a biological phenomenon composed of physiological changes. Responses to being an adult and grappling with issues related to it may be facilitated in groups. In such settings, people may talk with, understand, identify with, and learn from others in similar situations
Types of groups for adults
more types of groups are available and run for ______ than for any other age or stage of the population. Group research has shown that nearly all group training experiences occur with ______.
Counseling groups are also used for:
exploring the personal issues of adulthood and for helping adults deal with transitions relevant to their life-cycle changes. For instance, adjusting to marriage, parenthood, or single life are three areas on which ______ for adults might focus.
2 universal issues to consider in setting up adult groups are:
is an important device used in establishing a group. Many groups for adults revolve around issues related to particular interests or concerns in life.
necessities or obligations. For instance, many adults, such as women who work outside the home, need assistance in overcoming circumstances that limit them.
In setting up groups for adults...
the purpose of the group should be made clear, potential participants should be screened, rules governing the life of the group should be explained, members' rights and expectations should be noted, and the leader's qualifications should be communicated. Furthermore _________ should be appropriate for the life experiences of the members without being forced on them.
Groups for college students
continue to be used to reach a large number of students seeking psychological services. Struggles include fear of failure, mild depression, anxiety, self-esteem, weigh control, and interpersonal relationship concerns, are well suited for the types of help groups can be offered and "are best addressed via group work.
Psycho-educational groups have been used to help:
college students with topics that include enhancement or building of self-steem, speech anxiety, depression management, stress management, eating disorders, and academic probation support. Also used to help freshman student athletes adjust to college life.
Career awareness and self-exploration groups
another important and popular topic among college students in becoming more aware of careers and more decisive about an after college occupation.
Nontraditional adult college students
Those outside the 18-21 year old range, psycho-educational groups may be used to help them find information and resources about academic life, obtain emotional support from peers, interact socially, and meet developmental and remedial needs.
a structured small-group technique. In such a procedure, five to nine people from different campus settings identify specific issues related to the mental health and personal needs of students, faculty members, and staff. Ideas are written down and discussed in a round-robin format with minimal attention devoted to relationships among group members. Ideas are then prioritized and sometimes discussed and reranked. Session takes 45 to 90 minutes, after which the group is disbanded and the members are thanked for their participation.
Groups for adults in midlife
ages 40-65. Most outside of task/work groups, are psychoeducational and preventive (geared toward learning and wellness) or counseling and psychotherapeutic (focused toward making choices or changes).
this approach is based on the premise that physical exercise is an important element that contributes to people's abilities to perform better in all areas of life. _______ seems to speed up the group's developmental growth just as other active outdoor experiences often do. The result is a greater awareness of self, a lowering of defenses, and a transfer and investment of physical and psychological energy into the group.
Groups for victims of abuse
help them break the cycle of isolation so common to this population and interrelate in a healthy, dynamic way.
Group for survivors of suicide
another group that helps adults break out of isolation and resolve grief issues. The process of grieving is more difficult for ________ because death in these cases is usually sudden, unanticipated, untimely, often violent, and subject to stigmatization by the community
Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) groups and SFD
the purpose of both of these groups is to help victims of violence deal with its repercussions, such as feelings of helplessness, anxiety, depression, and disorganization. The ______ is a structured, one-session small group experience comprising seven stages: introduction, fact, thought, reaction, symptom, teaching and reentry. Lasts 1 to 3 hrs. and is led by a minimum of three trained group members.
solution-focused debriefing (SFD) groups
SFD is conducted over 3 weeks and enhances recovery through an extended group process. ______ asks its participants to identify times when they are not encountering symptoms or reacting to the violence they witnessed. In addition group members are encouraged to continue seeing themselves improving and identify what they need to do to keep improving.
Career support groups
are geared toward life-span issues of work, particularly women's work issues. In general, women often find themselves in work situations in which they believe that their skills and abilities are underused, their pay and status are low, and few opportunities for advancement seem to exist.
Job support groups
these groups are set up for people who have lost their jobs and need emotional support, who want to learn how to achieve career goals and are willing to spend a good deal of time in doing so, or who are unemployed and are emotionally struggling with the stigma, shame, and isolation of their situations.
Consciousness-raising (C-R) group
became popular at a time of turmoil and rapid change and paralleled one of the peaks of the women's movement. In essence these groups "broke the ice" in making it acceptable for men to work in groups.
refers to a process of ceremony, drumming, storytelling/poetry reading, physical movement, and imagery exercises designed to create a 'ritual process.' Through this process, the participants explore individually and in groups their intuitive sense of masculinity, which differs from socially mediated male gender roles
for women have also been found to be useful. The focus in on breaking out of the dependency and care-taking roles in which women often find themselves and connecting with oneself and others in a healthy and growth-producing way. They sometimes revolve around themes, such as creating a better self-concept, boundary setting, and enhancing communication and relationship skills.
Rape survivors' groups
help them recover from sexual trauma. These groups take several forms but often are conducted as group psychotherapy and counseling.
Parent education groups
were organized beginning in the late 1800s by the Child Study Association of America. These groups initially focused on a discussion oriented format about the needs of parents (usually mothers) and children. However now they are considered "a form of consultation in which the consultant (leader) is assisting the consultee (parent) by teaching effective child-rearing techniques.
Couples group therapy 4 advantages:
1. Identification by group members of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and expectations by others
2. Development of insight and skills through observing other couples
3. Group feedback and support for the ventilation of feelings and changed behavior
4. Reduced cost
Imago (image) relationship therapy
Hendrix (1988) approach. An eclectic approach that includes elements of psychoanalysis, transactional analysis, Gestalt psychology, cognitive therapy, and systems theory
Multiple-family group therapy (MFGT)
involves treating several families together at the same time with an explicit focus on problems or concerns shared by all of the families in attendance. Is proabably the most demanding form of group work and requires its leaders to have a solid working knowledge of both group and family theories. This approach usually use co-leaders to handle the complex dynamics associated with working with so many individuals at once
Emotional impact of separation
Includes dealing with loss, putting the separation in perspective, becoming aware of the limited value of searching for causes of the separation, becoming more cognizant of systems interactions, using the past as a guide to the future, and moving from a dyadic to a monadic identity.
Emotional response of separation
focuses on continuing relationships with and ex-spouse; recognizing the influence of the separation on family, friends, and children; working and dating; and sexual adjustment.
Parents without partners (PWP)
is probably the best known and most organized of such groups on a national level. Members and their children become linked to one another through these formal and informal group activities
Grief process includes:
6. Psychosomatic illness
8. Guilt and shame
9. Withdrawal to regroup
Groups for re-marrieds
stepfamilies, are one of the three most common types of families in North America (nuclear and single-parent families being the other two). Yet, blended families are especially vulnerable during their first three years. Psycho-educational, closed, multi-couple group intervention that focuses on enrichment is an excellent way to help families stabilize, grow, and constructively face future challenges.
refers to people convicted of a crime and includes both incarcerated (housed in a secure correctional environment) and non-incarcerated (on parole, probation, etc). Specific types includes: people found guilty of sex offenses, driving while intoxicated, shoplifters, domestic violence perpetrators, and crack cocaine users.
Potential Problematic areas with offenders:
low level of trust and high levels of anger, frustration and sense of deprivation. Some groups have focused on helping inmates adjust to prison life, and others on helping them readjust to the outside world.
this method enables group workers to get beyond offenders' resistance. It employs paradox (telling resistant clients not to change), hidden reasons in a group debate, and a reorientation phase to get offenders to examine defects in their thinking and to learn to practice appropriate thought processes. This cuts through offenders' excuses and makes covert logic overt so that it can be challenged and corrected.
Groups for persons with life-treatening illnesses
originated from Joseph Hersey Pratt's idea of treating tuberculosis outpatients in a group context. Such groups offer education, support, and release from stress and emotion that has built up. Groups for these people are a way to impart information in a quick and efficient manner.
Strengths with adult groups
1. Time and money are saved in using a group to convey information or treat individuals with similar problems.
3. Non-productive behavior may be altered or eliminated
4. Groups often play a key role in helping individuals in adulthood maximize their efforts and focus their energy on appropriate developmental tasks
5. Adults may be motivated to work on concerns with others and may also have an idea of outcomes they would like to achieve
Limitations with adult groups
1. Scheduling challenges
2. Passive-aggressive behavior by some members
3. Screening and assembling group members who have common focus
4. Past beliefs and behavioral patterns (longer to change certain interactions or new ways of behaving)