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Hist 16 Final Review
Terms in this set (45)
What were the advantages and disadvantages of each side going into the Civil War?
north- bigger population, had a huge industrialization advantage, they built majority of the countries firearms. north also had the port, so they could import
south-had majority of food supply, but was hard transporting food for soldiers, had trained officers, and had 7 out of the 8 military training camps.
When did Abraham Lincoln become president? What political party did he head?
-Presidency began on March 4th, 1861
-First president for the Republican Party
-Presidency ended when assassinated on April 15th, 1865
Who was the leadership of the Confederate States of America? Where was its capital?
What happened at Fort Sumter?
In 1861 Confederates attacked the fort, which led to its surrender and was the opening engagement of the Civil War. It is located in Charleston, South Carolina.
What happened at the (first) Battle of Bull Run?
lso known as First Manassas, some sixty thousand troops assembled, most of whom had never seen combat, and each side sent eighteen thousand into the fray. The Union forces attacked first, only to be pushed back. The Confederate forces then carried the day, sending the Union soldiers and Washington, DC, onlookers scrambling back from Virginia and destroying Union hopes of a quick, decisive victory
Why did Lincoln become frustrated with General George McClellan?
Frustrated that McClellan had again failed to destroy Lee's army, Lincoln officially removed him from command in November 1862
Who were Lincoln's cabinet secretaries? What was his relationship like with them?
-cabinet included all of his major rivals for the Republican nomination for President in 1860
-promised them positions to help him be elected as president
What did the Emancipation Proclamation say?
All slaves in rebel controlled (Confederate) states are free
What happened at Antietam?
1862-surprise attack on the north
8,000 killed or wounded
bloodiest day of american history
Reason for McClellans release
How did Ulysses S. Grant contribute to the Union cause?
led the union army to victory over the confederacy
What happened at Gettysburg?
3 day battle that was the most expensive battle.
23,000 casualties for the North
28,000 casualties for the South
became the cite of a national cemetery,
Lincoln gave his Gettysburg address
What was the March to the Sea? Who lead it?
Union General William T. Sherman led 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia, to frighten Georgia's civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause.
What was the mission of the Freedmen's Bureau?
established in 1865 by Congress to help millions of former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the Civil War.
The Freedmen's Bureau provided food, housing and medical aid, established schools and offered legal assistance. Also helped get them abandoned land
What corruption scandals rocked Ulysses S. Grant's presidency?
Crédit Mobilier of America scandal. In this most notorious example of Gilded Age corruption, several congressmen accepted cash and stock bribes in return for appropriating inflated federal funds for the construction of the transcontinental railroad.
Why did the KKK and White Leagues begin? What was their aim?
battled to maintain a pre-Civil War society in which whites held complete power. These groups unleashed a wave of violence, including lynching and arson, aimed at freed blacks and their white supporters.
What were the Black Codes and when were they enacted?
these codes were designed to maintain the social and economic structure of racial slavery in the absence of slavery itself. The laws codified white supremacy by restricting the civic participation of freed slaves—depriving them of the right to vote, the right to serve on juries, the right to own or carry weapons, and, in some cases, even the right to rent or lease land.
end of reconstruction-1865/1866
Lincoln's 10% Plan
when 10% of voters in southern states pledged allegiance to U.S. it would become part of union
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
northern Republicans who contested Lincoln's treatment of Confederate states and proposed harsher punishments
What did the Reconstruction amendments say (13th, 14th and 15th)?
13th- No slavery allowed
14th- all persons born in the US are citizens, nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
15th-All citizens can vote, no matter color of skin or race or if they were slaves previously
What were Jim Crow Laws? When were they enacted?
state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
What year did Reconstruction end? How and why?
1877, south wasnt keeping up with their promises to give equality to blacks, north pulled their troops out of the south
-The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia
-It was established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607
-Named it James after their new king, James I
-Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill"
-Wanted to set up a perfect society
-He believed that everyone would follow behind him
French and Indian War
-(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
-final imperial war
-It began over rival claims along the frontier in present-day western Pennsylvania.
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
- Arguably the most radical pamphlet of the revolutionary era
-powerful pamphlet telling the colonists to break free from the british rule.
-Paine's pamphlet rejected the monarchy, calling King George III a "royal brute" and questioning the right of an island (England) to rule over America.
The Declaration of independence
- By issuing the Declaration of Independence, adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776,
-the 13 American colonies severed their political connections to Great Britain.
-The Declaration summarized the colonists' motivations for seeking independence
They believed in traditional gender roles, viewing women as inherently more moral and nurturing than men.
Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families;
women were uniquely qualified to take up the roles of educators of children.
-Many of the rebels were veterans of the war for independence, including Captain Daniel Shays
-Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787,
-protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
-The government offered the rebels clemency if they took an oath of allegiance
The Articles of Confederation
-A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.
-supported by the anti-federalist
-feared a strong national government
-required the consent of all 9 states to ammend, so it was very difficult
The Federalists papers
-This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison,
-explained the importance of a strong central government.
-It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Bill or Rights
- protected the rights and liberties of ordinary citizens.
- first 10 amendments of the constitution
-Anti-Federalists became more open to the idea of the Constitution now that they had their personal rights officially stated.
Marbury v. Madison
-This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
-ability of the Supreme Court to limit Congressional power by declaring legislation unconstitutional
Lewis and Clark Expedition
-an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
-purpose was to discover the commercial possibilities of the new land and, most importantly, potential trade routes.
-from 1804 to 1806
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from their neighboring countries
-began in 1823
-President James Monroe first stated the doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's,
which each person has direct communication with God and Nature
Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
-didnt like industrialization because they believe in everything staying simplified
-FIRST HOMEGROWN AMERICAN PHILOSOPHERS WHOSE IDEAS WERE THEN PASSED DOWN TO EUROPE
Andrew Jackson as the "Common Man" and he represents the people
responsible for the indian removal act to open up more land
one of the wealthiest men in TN, huge slave owner
spits tobacco, dualer, gambler
The Missouri Compromise
Southerners felt that their rights to be slave owners was being ripped away when the Tallmadge Amendment was proposed
(which tried to forbid any future slavery in Missouri and make it a free state.)
This compromise stated that Missouri would enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state. This way the number of slave states to number of free states would remain equal.
The Indian Removal Act of 1830
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
--Andrew jackson received a lot of popularity from his promise to remove the indians
-fulfilled the white vision
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
original article was to encourage expansion into the newly acquired Texas territory,
wanted to further develop towards the west
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer.
He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
He recounted how slave masters had to sell their own children whom they had with slave women to appease the white wives who despised their offspring.
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man.
The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
He was part of a massive slave trade after the missouri compromise
an oration given by Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens March 21, 1861,
a few weeks before the beginning of the American Civil War in the Battle of Fort Sumter.
which he announced that the new government was founded on the idea that blacks were inferior to whites!!!!
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery,
Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories,
Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate