APUSH chapters 1-6
Terms in this set (108)
Spain, France, England, The Netherlands
the four main colonizers of America
an economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests; the colony existed only for the mother country
a labor system employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of America and the Philippines
Father La Casas
Spanish priest who stood up for the rights of the Native Americans--instead of Native American slaves, he was for African Slaves
early colonizer of the Americas whose goals were to convert the natives to Catholicism, and gain military power and wealth
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. (p. 482)
early colonizer of America who tried for a partnership with the natives based on Fur trade in the north and Canada. For the most part, they peacefully coexisted
early colonizer of America who was only there for economic reasons. Their turf was the Hudson Trading Post in New Amsterdam
early colonizer of America who thought it impossible to civilize the natives, and as a result many wars occurred. Used the Joint Stock Company system
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
the joint stock that founded Jamestown in 1607
the Pilgrims used this joint stock to fund their trip to the Americas
Religious separatists; William Bradford was their leader; penned the Mayflower Compact
governor of the Pilgrims
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power; a puritan belief
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, and Maryland
New York, New Jersey, Delaware
Carolinas and Georgia
Board of Trade and Plantations
chief body in England for governing the colonies; the group gathered information, reviewed appointments in America and advised the monarch on colonial policy.
the King had direct control of these colonies
this kind of colony is founded by private parties and has appointed governors
this kind of colony was granted a charter and was virtually left alone
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War; France got the West Indies, British got Canada and all the land East of the Mississippi River
Albany Plan of the Union
a plan requested by Benjamen Franklin to discuss the threat of war and unite the 13 colonies
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
used to bring more money to England, it included the proclamation of 1763, currancy act of 1764, sugar act of 1764, and the stamp act of 1764.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Currency Act of 1764
Forbade the colonies to issue paper money. The colonists saw the British government increasing its control over the colonies against the colonists' will.
Sugar Act of 1764
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
A tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
a Whig; and prime minister; repealed Stamp Act and modified Sugar Act; created Declaratory Act which established Parliament's authority
Developed crop rotation and later drained much land back at home in England
Placed levies on glass lead, paint and reinforced Parliament's power over colonies.
Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townsend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies
Sons of Liberty
Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors.
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
British Prime Minister during The American Revolution. He repealed the Townsend Duties, but passed the Coercive Acts and supported the king greatly to the extent that Britain was ruled only by the king.
Boston Tea Party
protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped British tea into Boston harbor
Intolerable Acts (coercive acts)
in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies (all except Georgia) sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
American colonists' war of independence from Britain, fought from 1775-1783.
in the Revolutionary War, this country had a higher population, a well equipped and trained army, hired Hessians, and had a superior Navy
in the Revolutionary War, this country had a scattered population, Guerrilla Warfare, a will to win, the home field advantage, was always fighting a defensive war, and had French aid
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
1/5-1/3 of the American population during the Revolutionary War; they were opposed to the war. Consisted of British Officials, Anglican Clergy, large land owners, merchants, minorities
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. 640 acres for $1 an acre.
Northwest Ordinance of 1785
organized or allowed western lands to be sold, and set up the rules for statehood in the Northwest territories: 5,000 people = territory council, 60,000 people = statehood. Also made all waterways free and banned slavery.
The Power of the Purse
The power that the colonial legislatures had over the governors
created the first American spelling book
The British ship that crashed offshore and was burned by colonists, whom no one would testify against in a trial
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Right of Deposit
right to transfer goods at a destination without having to pay fees for the cargo; New Orleans
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781. In Virginia
The pro-British lieutenant governor whose elegant house was pillaged and virtually destroyed by the Sons of Liberty. They did this to him because he supposedly supported the Stamp Act. Hutchenson, however, secretly opposed it, but when it became a low he felt obliged to support it.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain. In New York
Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, John Adams, and John Jay
negotiators of the Second Treaty of Paris
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
Colonel in Continental Army and good soldier who betrayed the Patriots and helped Britain.
the American Aristocracy, thought the Articals of Confederation were too weak and wanted a more centralized form of government
liked the Articles of Confederation, in favor of local government, included yeomen farmers and city artisans
the radicals of the post revolutionary times, included Jefferson and Madison. Supported yeoman farmers.
the conservatives of the post revolutionary times, included Alexander Hamilton and George Washington
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
Treaty that said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Alexander Hamilton's Bank Plan
1). pay off national debts at par
2). establish a national bank
3). protective tariff of 1792
4). sale of western lands
Land Law of 1796
set the price of western land at $2 an acre, still 640 acres.
winner of the election of 1796 after Washington stepped down after 2 terms. Beat Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson. Father of the Navy
Alien and Sedition acts
Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstitutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
winner of the 1800 election, Tied Aaron Burr
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
an agreement between the USA and and Spain that changed the borders of Florida to make it easier for American ships to make it to the New Orland Port
Land Law of 1880
made the minimum acres for land in the west 340 instead of 640
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
first American chief justice
Yazoo Land Scandal
Randolph criticized Jefferson for scandal; Georgia sold land for fraction of value; next legislature canceled sale; evidence of decay of Republican virtue
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
General Mad Anthony Wayne
led US troops against Native Americans; won at Fallen Timbers
the right to bear arms
Jefferson's opponent for the presidency
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
"Old Ironsides"; still intact; fought in War of 1812
signed by Thomas Jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all American goods and American ships from sailing for foreign ports
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Touissant L'Oversture, leader of a revolution in Haiti
native american leader who led native american confederacy against americans in the battle of fallen timbers
The father of the constitution
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators