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the absence of homeostasis, the cause of loss of equilibrium in organism that results in illness


the organism that a nourishes and supports a parasite


when a cell, organ, organism, or ecosystem is outside the "normal," healthy range, a loss of homeostasis, a loss of equilibrium

immune system

collection of organs that fight and promote resistance to disease


resistance to disease


invasions by pathogens

infectious agent

a pathogen


microscopic organisms


an organism that lives on or in a host and causes it harm


a disease causing organism


the characteristic of being able to cause a disease


having the ability to damage an organism


any substance than is inhaled, ingested, or absorbed at dosages high enough to damage a living organism.


injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity

viral disease

loss of homeostasis caused by a virus


a strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating, needs a host so it can replicate


The name of the late stages of HIV infection; defined by a specific reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections.

white blood cell

a blood cell that fights disease


swallow up

allergic reactions

immune reactions to normally harmless substances


compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria


foreign substances that stimulate the production of antibodies.


single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes


identification of a disease, identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon

active immunity

immunity produced by exposure to an antigen, as a result of the immune response

passive immunity

immunity that results when an individual receives the immune agents from some source other than his or her own body


a protein made by white blood cells that act against a specific antigen

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