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Terms in this set (46)
Frustrationthe psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived needPossible reactions to frustration:aggression: actions meant to harm or destroy displaced aggression: taking out one's frustrations on some less threatening or more available target, a form of displacement escape or withdrawal: leaving the presence of a stressor, either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse, or apathyConflictpsychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two or more desires or goals, only one of which may be attainedApproach-approach conflictconflict occurring when a person must choose between two desirable goalsAvoidance-avoidance conflictconflict occurring when a person must choose between two undesirable goalsApproach-avoidance conflictconflict occurring when a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspectsdouble approach-avoidance conflictconflict in which the person must decide between two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspectsmultiple approach-avoidance conflictconflict in which the person must decide between more than two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspectssympathetic systemresponds to stressful eventsparasympathetic systemrestores the body to normal functioning after the stress has ceasedGeneral Adaptation Syndrome (GAS):the three stages of the body's physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustionImmune systemthe system of cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases, infections, and injuries -negatively affected by stressPsychoneuroimmunologythe study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts, and behavior on the immune systemHeart diseasestress puts people at higher risk for heart diseaseDiabetestype 2 diabetes is associated with excessive weight gain and occurs when pancreas insulin levels become less efficient as the body size increasesCancer: natural killer cell immune system cell responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying tumor cellsCognitive appraisal approachstates that how people think about a stressor determines, at least in part, how stressful that stressor will becomeprimary appraisalthe first step in assessing a stressor, which involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challengesecondary appraisalthe second step in assessing a threat, which involves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressorType A personalityperson who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyedType B personalityperson who is relaxed and laid-back, less driven and competitive than Type A, and slow to angerType C personalitypleasant but repressed person, who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficultHardy personalitya person who seems to thrive on stress but lacks the anger and hostility of the Type A personalityOptimistspeople who expect positive outcomesPessimistspeople who expect negative outcomesBurnoutnegative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustrationSocial factors increasing the effects of stressinclude poverty, stresses on the job or in the workplace, and entering a majority culture that is different from one's culture of origin.Acculturative stressstress resulting from the need to change and adapt a person's ways to the majority culturefour methods of acculturationintegration assimilation separation marginalizationSocial-support systemthe network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in needCoping strategiesactions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressorsproblem-focused copingcoping strategies that try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actionsemotion-focused copingcoping strategies that change the impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reaction to the stressorMeditationmental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousnessConcentrative meditationform of meditation in which a person focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxationReceptive meditationform of meditation in which a person attempts to become aware of everything in immediate conscious experience, or an expansion of consciousness