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Arts and Humanities
Comm Theory Final
Terms in this set (91)
Social Judgement Theory
What is Social Judgement Theory? - Perception and Evaluation of an idea by comparing it with current attitudes. SJT looks at the judgement of messages.
Where you stand on an issue.
Latitude of Acceptance
The range of ideas that a person sees as reasonable or worthy of consideration.
Latitude of Rejection
The range of ideas that a person sees as unreasonable or objectionable.
Latitude of Non-Commitment
The range of ideas that a person sees as neither acceptable nor objectionable.
The importance or centrality of an issue to a person's life, often demonstrated by membership in a group with a known stand (eg. how much you care about something)
A perceptual error whereby people judge messages that fall within their latitude of rejection as farther from their anchor than they really are
A perceptual error whereby people judge messages that fall within their attitude of acceptance as less discrepant from their anchor than they really are.
Attitude change in the opposite direction of what the message advocates; listeners driven away from rather than toward an idea.
Groups that members use to identify themselves.
A prescriptive approach that describes and predicts task-group performance when four communication functions are fulfilled.
Requirements for positive group outcome
Requirements for positive group outcome
Problem analysis - Determining the nature, extent, and cause of the problem
Goal setting - Establishing criteria by which to judge proposed solutions
Identification of alternatives - Generation of options to solve the problem
Evaluation of the positives and negatives - Testing the relative merits of each option; weighing the costs and benefits
Types of communication within group communication
Function-Orientated Interaction Coding System; a tool to record and classify the function of utterances during a group's discussion.
An uninterrupted statement of a single member that appears to perform a specific function.
Encroachment of modern corporations into every area of life outside the workplace; this leads to decreased quality of life for the average person.
Public decisions can be formed through:
Strategy - Overt managerial moves to extend control Consent - Unwitting allegiance to convert control Involvement - Free expression of ideas, but no voice
Participation - Stakeholder democracy in action
A view that communication is merely a conduit for the transmission of information about the real world.
View that language is the principal medium through which social reality is created and sustained.
Collaborative decision making; participatory democracy in the workplace.
Politically attentive relational constructionism, a collaborative view of communication based in stakeholder conflict
Six Areas of Conflict -
1. Inner Life
2. Identity and Recognition
3. Social Order
5. Life Narratives
Discovering all possible means of persuasion
Logos, ethos, pathos
Logos - Logical proof, which comes from the line of argument in a speech
Ethos - Perceived credibility, which comes from the speaker's intelligence, character, and goodwill toward the audience, as these personal characteristics are revealed through the message
Pathos - Emotional proof, which comes from the feelings of the speech draws out of those who hear it.
Five Canons of Rhetoric -
'Life is a drama'
A tool critics can use to discern the motives of a speaker or writer by labeling five key elements of the human drama; act, scene, agent, agency, purpose
- Goal is to discover the motive behind the message.
The creation of language led to the creation of the negative.
The word a speaker uses to which all other positive words are subservient
The term that sums up all that a speaker regards as bad, wrong, or evil.
Communication aimed at maintaining relationships rather than passing along information or saying something new
Narration - Symbolic actions - words or deeds -
that have sequence and meaning for those who live create, or interpret them.
A theoretical framework that views narrative as the basis of all human communication.
- The world is a set of stories from which we create our lives
Internal consistent with characters acting in a reliable fashion; the story hangs together.
Congruence between values embedded in a message and what listeners regard as truthful and human; the story strikes a responsive chord.
'The medium is the message'
The socially constructed sensory world of meanings
Generic term for all human-invented technology that extends the range, speed, of channels of communication
A specific types of media; for example a book, newspaper, radio, television, telephone, film, website, or email
The study of different personal and social environments created by the use of different communication technologies
The Media Map of History (understand the sensory organs associated and the technological development that pushed us into each new age
1. The Tribal Age (ear)
2. The Literate Age (ear)
3. The Print Age (sight)
4. The Electronic Age (ear & touch)
Uses and Gratifications
People make daily choices to consume different types of media Understanding the need helps to explain the reasons and the effects of media usage
Five Assumptions of Uses & Grats -
1. People us media for their own particular purposes
2. People seek to gratify need
3. Media compete for your attention and time
4. Media affect different people differently
5. People can accurately report their media use and motivation
Types of Uses & Grats (Rubin) -
1. Passing time
5. Social Interaction
6. Relaxation Information
*Researchers later identified habit as another type
Gerbner claimed that heavy television users develop an exaggerated belief in a mean and scary world
Three Analysis Prongs to Understanding Televisions Effects
1. Institutional Process Analysis - scholarship that penetrates behind the scenes of media organizations in an effort to understand what policies or practices might be lurking there
2. Message system analysis - scholarship that involves careful, systematic study of TV content, usually employing content analysis as a research method
a. Dramatic violence - overt expression or threat of physical force as part of plot
i. Definition rules out verbal abuse, idle threats, and pie-in-the-face slapstick
ii. Includes physical abuse presented in cartoon format
3. Cultivation analysis - research designed to find support notion that those who spend more time watching TV are
more likely to see real world through TV lens
When people make judgements about the world around them, they rely on the smallest bits of information that come to mind most quickly
blurring, blending, and bending process by which
heavy TV viewers from disparate groups develop a common outlook through constant exposure to the same images and labels
condition that exists when viewers' real-life environment is like the world of TV; those viewers are most susceptible to TV's cultivating power
difference in percentage giving the "television answer" within comparable groups of light and heavy views (The difference between someone who watches a lot and a little)
Mean world syndrome
cynical mindset of general mistrust of others, subscribed to by heavy TV viewers
The media aren't very successful in telling us what to think, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about
Agenda-setting hypothesis - mass media have ability to transfer the salience (prominence) of issues on their news agenda to the public agenda
Do not make deliberate attempt to influence listener, viewer, or reader opinion
pattern of news coverage across major print and broadcast media, as measured by prominence and length of stories
most important public issues as measured by public opinion surveys
People willing to let media shape thinking when a high need for orientation exists
(this occurs when there is high relevance and uncertainty)
Index of curiosity
measure of extent that individuals need for orientation motivates them to let the media shape their views
selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object or issue is discussed
clusters of people who demand center stage for their one, overriding concern, pressure groups
Current thinking on news selection focuses on crucial role of public relations professionals working for government agencies, corporations, and interest groups
More media choice = setting your own agenda
people belonging to low-power groups who must change their language when communicating publicly; their ideas are often overlooked
Women as a muted group first proposed by social anthropologist Edwin Ardener
Kramarae maintains language is literally a man-made construction
Women's words discounted in our society and women's thoughts devalued
When sexual harassment was first used in a court case in the late 1970s, it was the only legal term defined by women
How Muted Groups Talk to Dominant Groups
First must identify the preferred outcome (co-culture's goal for interaction with the dominant group), then select one of the following methods,
1. Assimilation - blending in with the dominant group
2. Separation - minimizing contact with the dominant group
3. Accommodation - persuading the dominant group to incorporate the experiences of the co-cultural group
Communication Accommodation Theory
Giles offered Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) as "theory of intercultural communication that actually attends to communication"
constant movement toward and away from others by changing communicative behavior (also used in intergenerational context)
trategy through which you adapt communication behavior to become more similar to another person Adopt sound and cadence of other person
Talk in a way that is easier for the other person to grasp what you are saying
Discourse management (selecting which topics to discuss)
Satisfy other person's emotional needs
strategy of accentuating the difference between yourself and another person; divergence from the norm
for the elderly, a face-saving strategy that invokes age as a reason for not performing well
persisting in your original communication style regardless of the communication behavior of the other
demeaning or patronizing talk; excessive concern paid to vocal clarity or amplitude, message simplification, or repetition
group memberships and social categories that we use to define who we are; communication will likely become divergent because of their need to emphasize their distinctiveness
communicator's predisposition to focus on either their individual identity or group identity during a conversation
Our response to others' communication hinges on the behavior we perceive and the intention or motive we ascribe to them for speaking that way
perceptual process by which we observe what people do and then try to figure out their intent or disposition
Face Negotiation Theory
Ting-Toomey assumes that people of every culture are always negotiating face
projected image of one's self in a relational situation; our public image
specific verbal and nonverbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss and to uphold and honor face gain
*Facework of people from individualistic cultures will be strikingly different from face work of people from collectivistic cultures
Collectivism and individualism differ in how one perceives:
people identify with a larger group responsible for providing care in exchange for group loyalty; we- identity
people look out for themselves and their immediate families; I-identity
Less than one third in individualistic cultures; The we-identity of the Japanese is quite foreign to the I-identity of the American who values individualistic needs and goals over group needs and goals
People are not cultural clones - Self-construal - self-image; degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to others
Independent self values I-identity and is more self-face oriented; prevalent within individualistic cultures
Interdependent self values we-identity and emphasizes relational connectedness; closely aligned with collectivism
Three orientations of face:
3. Mutual face
regard for self-face, other face, or mutual face
self-concerned facework strategy used to preserve autonomy and defend against loss of personal freedom
other-concerned facework strategy used to defend and support another person's need for inclusion
5 generally accepted responses to conflict
1. Avoiding (withdrawal)
2. Obliging (giving in)
3. Compromising (negotiation)
4. Integrating (problem solving)
5. Dominating (competing)
managing conflict by disclosure or venting of feelings
making indirect accusations, showing resentment, procrastination, and other behaviors aimed at thwarting another's resolution of conflict
method of conflict management where disputing parties seek aide of mediator or neutral party to help them resolve their differences
way a culture deals with status differences, social hierarchies; the degree to which low- power members accept unequal power as natural
individualism distinction more complicated when power difference is taken into consideration
7 additive factors that increase level of face threat
1. Violated central facework rule in culture
2. Cultural difference causes mistrust
3. Importance of topic
4. Power of the other
5. Harm that will be done
6. The other initiates conflict
7. Regard the other as an outgroup member
Knowledge, mindfulness, interaction skill
Knowledge - most important dimension of facework competence; how many you be different?
Mindfulness - recognition that things are not always what they seem; seeking multiple perspectives in conflict situations
Interaction skill - ability to communicate appropriately, effectively, and adaptively
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