AP GOVERNMENT Chapter 15
Terms in this set (33)
Administrative Procedure Act
A law passed in 1946 requiring federal agencies to give notice, solicit comments, and (sometimes) hold public hearings before adopting any new rules.
The practice of a legislative committee determining the amount an agency can spend on a yearly basis. This practice is a recent one and curtails the power of the appropriations committees.
Money formally set aside for a specific use; issued by the House Appropriations Committee.
Legislation that originates in a legislative committee stating the maximum amount of money that an agency may spend on a given program.
A job description by an agency which is tailor-made for a specific person. These appointments occur in middle- and upper-level positions in the bureaucracy.
A large organization composed of appointed officers in which authority is divided among several managers.
An informal understanding among fellow employees of an agency as to how they are supposed to act.
A request made by congressional committees to pass on certain agency decisions. Although usually not binding, it is seldom ignored by agencies.
The set of civil servants appointed on the basis of a written exam administered by the Office of Personnel Management or by meeting certain selection criteria.
A bureaucratic pathology in which some agencies seem to be working at cross-purposes to other agencies.
The ability of a bureaucracy to choose courses of action and make policies not spelled out in advance by laws.
A bureaucratic pathology in which two government agencies seem to be doing the same thing.
Freedom of Information Act
A law passed in 1966 giving citizens the right to inspect all government records except those containing military, intelligence, or trade secrets or material revealing private personnel actions.
A bureaucratic pathology in which agencies tend to grow without regard to the benefits their programs confer or the costs they entail.
The policy-making network composed of a government agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group. This network is less common today because of the variety of interest groups that exist and the proliferation of congressional subcommittees.
Members of Washington-based interest groups, congressional staffers, university faculty, experts participating in think tanks, and representatives of the mass media who regularly debate government policy on a certain subject. Such networks are replacing the iron triangles.
A belief in a freely competitive economy that was widely held in the late nineteenth century.
Congressional veto of an executive decision during the specified period it must lie before Congress before it can take effect. The veto is effected through a resolution of disapproval passed by either house or by both houses. These resolutions do not need the president's signature. In 1983, the Supreme Court ruled such vetoes were unconstitutional, but Congress continues to enact laws containing them.
A job in the federal bureaucracy that is filled by a person whom an agency has already identified.
National Environmental Policy Act
A law passed in 1969 requiring agencies to issue an environmental impact statement before undertaking any major action affecting the environment.
non career executive assignments
A form of patronage under the excepted service given to high-ranking members of the regular competitive service, or to persons brought into the civil service at a high level who are advocates of presidential programs.
Open Meeting Law
A law passed in 1976 requiring agency meetings to be open to the public unless certain specified matters are being discussed.
Congressional supervision of the bureaucracy.
Bureaucratic appointments made on the basis of political considerations. Federal legislation significantly limits such appointments today.
A law passed in 1883 which began the process of transferring federal jobs from patronage to the merit system.
A law passed in 1974 requiring government files about individuals to be kept confidential.
A bureaucratic pathology in which complex rules and procedures must be followed to get things done.
Schedule C job
A form of patronage under the excepted service for a position of confidential or policy-determining" character below the level of the cabinet and sub cabinet.
Senior Executive Service
A special classification for high-level civil servants created by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Members of this service can be hired, fired, and transferred more easily than ordinary civil servants. They are also eligible for cash bonuses and, if removed, are guaranteed jobs elsewhere in the government. The purpose of the service is to give the president more flexibility in recruiting, assigning, and paying high-level bureaucrats with policy-making responsibility.
Another phrase for political patronage, that is, the practice of giving the fruits of a party's victory, such as jobs and contracts, to loyal members of that party.
Money outside the regular government budget. These funds are beyond the control of congressional appropriations committees.
A bureaucratic pathology in which an agency spends more than is necessary to buy some product or service.
Whistleblower Protection Act
A law passed in 1989 which created an Office of Special Counsel to investigate complaints from bureaucrats claiming they were punished after reporting to Congress about waste, fraud, or abuse in their agencies.