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31 terms

Organic Chemistry

Vocabulary terms associated with organic chemistry
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4 organic macromolecules
carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Carbon is able to form bond with many elements because it has ________ valence electrons.
four
Which organic macromolecule transports materials into and out of the cell, speeds up chemical reactions and helps fight infections?
proteins
Which organic macromolecule transmits genetic information and carries the instructions to build proteins?
Nucleic Acids
Which organic macromolecule waterproofs, insulates, stores energy and acts as chemical messengers?
Lipids
Which organic macromolecule is out main source of quick energy and acts as a structural component in plants (cellulose) and in some animals (chitin)?
Carbohydrates
monosaccharide
single sugar
polysaccharide
several single sugars that are joined together (complex carbohydrate; starch)
saturated fats
have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; NO carbon-carbon double bonds; solid at room temperature
unsaturated fats
contain atlest one carbon-carbon double bond; liquid at room temperature
What are steroids?
lipids that act as chemical messengers
What is the building block of proteins?
amino acid
What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
nucleotides
Glycerol and fatty acid is the monomer of what organic compound?
lipids
What type of bonds do Organic Compounds contain?
Covalent bonds
What is the building block (monomer) of carbohydrates?
monosaccharides
What is produced during photosynthesis?
glucose (carbohydrate)
What two macromolecules help store energy?
carbohydrates and lipids
What is the main component of the cell membrane?
lipids (phospholipids)
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
5-carbon sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base
What elements are in Carbohydrates and Lipids?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
What elements are in Proteins?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur
What elements are in Nucleic Acids?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorous
What type of organic macromolecule are enzymes?
proteins
What two elements are found in ALL organic compounds?
Carbon and Hydrogen
How do enzymes speed up a chemical reaction?
They lower the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started.
What does it mean for a protein to denature?
It changes shape and no longer fits with it substrate properly.
What are reactants in a chemical reaction?
The elements or compounds going INTO the reaction
What are products in a chemical reaction?
The elements or compounds coming OUT of a reaction
What are three factors that can affect the rate of action of an enzyme?
Temperature, pH and Substrate concentration
What is the active site of an enzyme?
The specially shaped area on the enzyme where the substrate fits with the enzyme.