31 terms

Organic Chemistry

Vocabulary terms associated with organic chemistry
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carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
What are the 4 organic molecules?
4
Carbon is able to form bond with many elements because it has ________ valence electrons.
proteins
Which organic macromolecule transports materials into and out of the cell, speeds up chemical reactions and helps fight infections?
Nucleic Acids
Which organic macromolecule transmits genetic information and carries the instructions to build proteins?
Lipids
Which organic macromolecule waterproofs, insulates, stores energy and acts as chemical messengers?
Carbohydrates
Which organic macromolecule is out main source of quick energy and acts as a structural component in plants (cellulose) and in some animals (chitin)?
monosaccharide
single sugar
polysaccharide
several single sugars that are joined together (complex carbohydrate; starch)
saturated fats
have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; NO carbon-carbon double bonds; solid at room temperature
unsaturated fats
contain atlest one carbon-carbon double bond; liquid at room temperature
lipids that act as chemical messengers
What are steroids?
Amino Acids
What is the building block of proteins?
Nucleotides
What is the monomer of nucleic acids?
Lipids
Glycerol and fatty acid is the monomer of what organic compound?
Covalent Bonds
What type of bonds do Organic Compounds contain?
Monosaccharides
What is the building block (monomer) of carbohydrates?
glucose (carbohydrate)
What is produced during photosynthesis?
carbohydrates and lipids
What two macromolecules help store energy?
phospholipids (lipids)
What is the main component of the cell membrane?
5-carbon sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
What elements are in Carbohydrates and Lipids?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur
What are the elements in Proteins?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorous
What are the elements in Nucleic Acids?
Proteins
What type of organic macromolecule are enzymes?
Carbon and Hydrogen
What two elements are found in ALL organic compounds?
They lower the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started.
How do enzymes speed up a chemical reaction?
It changes shape and no longer fits with it substrate properly.
What does it mean for an enzyme to denature?
The elements or compounds going INTO the reaction
What are the reactants in a chemical reaction?
The elements or compounds coming OUT of a reaction
What are the products in a chemical reaction?
Temperature,pH and substrate concentration
What are three factors that can affect the rate of action of an enzyme?
The specially shaped area on the enzyme where the substrate fits with the enzyme.
What is the active site on an enzyme?