Vocabulary terms associated with organic chemistry

4 organic macromolecules

carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

Carbon is able to form bond with many elements because it has ________ valence electrons.

four

Which organic macromolecule transports materials into and out of the cell, speeds up chemical reactions and helps fight infections?

proteins

Which organic macromolecule transmits genetic information and carries the instructions to build proteins?

Nucleic Acids

Which organic macromolecule waterproofs, insulates, stores energy and acts as chemical messengers?

Lipids

Which organic macromolecule is out main source of quick energy and acts as a structural component in plants (cellulose) and in some animals (chitin)?

Carbohydrates

monosaccharide

single sugar

polysaccharide

several single sugars that are joined together (complex carbohydrate; starch)

saturated fats

have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; NO carbon-carbon double bonds; solid at room temperature

unsaturated fats

contain atlest one carbon-carbon double bond; liquid at room temperature

What are steroids?

lipids that act as chemical messengers

What is the building block of proteins?

amino acid

What is the monomer of nucleic acids?

nucleotides

Glycerol and fatty acid is the monomer of what organic compound?

lipids

What type of bonds do Organic Compounds contain?

Covalent bonds

What is the building block (monomer) of carbohydrates?

monosaccharides

What is produced during photosynthesis?

glucose (carbohydrate)

What two macromolecules help store energy?

carbohydrates and lipids

What is the main component of the cell membrane?

lipids (phospholipids)

What are the three parts of a nucleotide?

5-carbon sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base

What elements are in Carbohydrates and Lipids?

Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

What elements are in Proteins?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur

What elements are in Nucleic Acids?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorous

What type of organic macromolecule are enzymes?

proteins

What two elements are found in ALL organic compounds?

Carbon and Hydrogen

How do enzymes speed up a chemical reaction?

They lower the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started.

What does it mean for a protein to denature?

It changes shape and no longer fits with it substrate properly.

What are reactants in a chemical reaction?

The elements or compounds going INTO the reaction

What are products in a chemical reaction?

The elements or compounds coming OUT of a reaction

What are three factors that can affect the rate of action of an enzyme?

Temperature, pH and Substrate concentration

What is the active site of an enzyme?

The specially shaped area on the enzyme where the substrate fits with the enzyme.

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