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Salter's Chemistry Unit 2
Terms in this set (13)
An acid-base titration is a neutralization reaction.
The moles of acid will equal the moles of base at the equivalence point.
o 1 s orbital can hold 2 electrons
o 3 p orbitals can hold 6 electrons
o 5 d orbitals can hold 10 electrons
o 7 f orbitals can hold 14 electrons
How to Represent Orbitals
We can represent orbitals by drawing boxes and drawing lines through them. For example:
Writing Orbital Configuration
Eg, Sodium Na has 11 electrons so 2.8.1
we write this as
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
4s comes before 3d .
A type of covalent bond between two atoms in which electrons are shared unequally. Because of this, one end of the molecule has a slightly negative charge and the other a slightly positive charge
Predicting Bond Polarity From Molecule Shape
If the molecule has symmetry around the central atom, the bond dipole moments will "cancel out" (like pulling in opposite directions) and the molecule will therefore be non-polar.
However, if the molecule is asymmetric, the bond dipole moments won't "cancel out" and the molecule will have a net dipole moment and the molecule is therefore polar.
If the difference in electronegativity values is greater than 0.5, then the bond is polar.
An atom which can pull the bonding pair of electrons away from the atom it is attached to is said to have an inductive effect.
The degree to which an atom attracts electrons.
The more electronegative an element is then the greater its attraction for electrons.
Electronegativity values generally increase towards the top right of the periodic table.
Molecules with permanent dipoles
Dipole means an asymmetric distribution of electron electrical charge to give partially positive and partially negative regions in the same molecule.
There are two types of dipole bond;
Instantaneous dipole - Induced dipole
Permanent dipole - Permanent dipole
Instantaneous Dipole - Induced Dipole
Weakest type of molecular bond and can occur in all types of molecules including those that already have permanent dipoles.
Occurs when there is an instantaneous uneven distribution of electrons in the electron cloud. This causes a positive area and a negative area of the atom. Electron clouds of neighbouring atoms shift; they have an induced dipole complementary to the original atom.
There is a resultant attractive force.
Permanent Dipole- Permanent Dipole
Strongest type of intermolecular bond.
Molecules with permanent dipoles have atoms with different electronegativity values. The positively charged end of a molecule attracts the negatively charged end of another and an intermolecular bond occurs.
Since electronegativity values are unchanging, these bonds are called permanent dipole - permanent dipole bonds.
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