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Marine Semester 2 Exam Study Guide - Chapter 10
Terms in this set (78)
What characteristics do all vertebrates share?
they have a backbone, spine, and vertebrae. skull made of cartilage/ bone. Bilaterally symmetrical and have endoskeleton
Which group of vertebrates has the largest number of species?
Which class of fish does not have vertebrae, but is placed under vertebrates? Why did
scientists place it here?
because it has a brain protected by a skull
What biological class do jawless fishes belong to?
What features characterize jawless fishes?
they lack jaws. body is cylindrical and elongates. lack paired fins and scales. brain is protected by a skull
How do jawless fishes eat?
by suction with the aid of a round muscular mouth and rows of teeth
What do jawless fishes eat?
feed on dead/dying fish
What are two examples of jawless fishes?
hagfish and lampreys
What biological class do cartilaginous fish belong to?
what three groups of fish fall under cartilaginous fish?
sharks, rays&skates, and lampreys
What features characterize cartilaginous fish?
skeleton made of cartilage, moveable jaws with well developed teeth. mouth is always ventral (underneath head), paired lateral fins, and sand paper like skin
Describe the fins of a shark: Dorsal fin
on top, usually 2 of them, one smaller than the other
Describe the fins of a shark: caudal fin
back fin. used for swimming. heterocercal- upper lobe longer than lower
Describe the fins of a shark: pectoral fin
bottom fin. large & pointed
Difference between placoid scales and cycloid scales.
placoid scales are small rough scales that make up the skin on cartilaginous fish. cycloid scales are the overlapping smooth scales of bony fishes
how is the skeleton of cartilaginous fishes different than that of other fish?
their skeleton is made of cartilage, even though the skeleton of jawless fishes is also made of cartilage. Cartilaginous fish have moveable jaws.
How do cartilaginous fish eat?
their mouth is ventral (underneath) which means they eat things below them
What do cartilaginous fish eat?
some sharks eat plankton, others eat pretty much anything, including rays.
What makes a whale shark different than other sharks?
whale sharks are the largest fish. they are filter feeders and feed on plankton
what other sharks eat the same thing as whale sharks?
How do the external features of skates and rays differ from those of
rays and skates are dorsoventrally flattened. gill slits are on under-side of body, rather than on the side. pectoral fins are greatly expanded. their eyes are on top of their head and they have a whip like tail.
what do skates and rays typically eat?
clams, crabs, small fishes, and other small animals that live in the sediment
What does demersal mean?
What biological class do bony fish belong to?
What features characterize bony fish?
skeleton made partially of bone. have cycloid /ctenoid scales. have operculum (gill cover). fins consist of thin membranes supported by bony spines (fin rays). Have a terminal mouth and jaws. Have a swim bladder
How is the structure of bony fish different than that of
cartilaginous fish? (What do they have that sharks and rays do not?)
sharks don't have a swim bladder or terminal mouth. Bony fishes jaws are more flexible than sharks.
body shape: streamlined body
helps fast swimmers move through the water Ex. sharks & tuna
body shape: laterally compressed
good for leisurely swimming (around coral reefs) Ex. snappers & butterfly fishes
body shape: dorsoventrally flattened
organ is compressed along its dorsal (upper) and ventral (lower) side Ex. rays & skates
body shape: elongated
Ex. snipe eels & eels
Chemical digestion in fishes usually begins where?
What functions does the liver serve?
secretes biles needed for the breakdown of fats
what is the additional function the liver serves in sharks?
Describe the parts of a fish's circulatory system.
deoxygenated blood enters the first chamber of heart from body. blood is then pumped to 2nd chamber of the heart. 2nd chamber pumps blood to the gills where gas exchange takes place. oxygenated blood is carried back to the body by arteries. other capillaries collect into blood vessels & veins which carry deoxygenated blood back to heart.
Describe the heart of a fish.
have a 2 chambered heart located below the gills
What is the difference between a vein and an artery?
artery delivers oxygenated blood to the body. veins bring deoxygenated blood to the heart.
Explain how gills work.
water is forced over the gills and allow fish to get oxygen
What are spiracles?
one of the two openings behind the eyes of cartilaginous fish
Describe the structure of the gills.
Gills are supported by cartilaginous / bony structures & gill arches. each gill arch bears 2 rows of gill filaments. gill rakers prevent food particles from injuring gill filaments or specialized for filtering water in filter feeding fishes.
What is an operculum?
What are gill rakers?
prevent food particles from injuring gill filaments or specialized for filtering water in filter feeding fishes.
What is the purpose of the counter-current system of blood flow in fish?
to increase efficiency when blood in gills flows in the opposite direction of water passing over them
What is the difference between myoglobin and hemoglobin?
hemoglobin is red protein that gives blood its color . it releases oxygen to tissues as it needs. myoglobin is protein in muscles that can store oxygen. makes muscles dark red.
Explain how fishes osmoregulate.
this is done to prevent dehydration. to replace lost water they swallow sea water which contains excess salts which pass straight through gut with out being absorbed. salts that are absorbed are excreted by the kidney
What are the structures fish have to detect smells?
olfactory sacs on both sides of the head. each sac opens to outside through 1 or 2 openings (nostrils)
What do fishes use their olfactory senses for?
detect food, mates, and predators. sometimes used to find their way home. sharks use it to detect blood
How do fish focus their eyes?
by moving their eye closer to or farther away from the subject
Do all fish depend equally on their vision?
no, bony fishes rely more on vision than cartilaginous fish.
What is a nictitating membrane?
across the eye of some sharks to reduce brightness and protect the eyes during feeding
Describe the ears of fishes.
they have inner ears located to the sides of brain just behind the eyes. they are a set of fluid filled canals that contain sensory cells. also involved in equilibrium and balance
What is a lateral line?
system of canals and sensory cells on side of fish that helps with detecting vibrations in the water
what is lateral line used for?
it picks up vibrations resulting from swimming of other animals and water displacements.
What is the ampullae of Lorenzini and what is it used for?
they are sensory organs in the heads of cartilaginous fishes that can detect weak electrical fields. It helps them locate prey & compass where they're going
What is the difference between simultaneous hermaphroditism and sequential hermaphroditism?
simultaneous is animals that can produce eggs and sperm at the same time. sequential is an animal that changes from male to female of the course of its life.
color pattern that helps break the outline of an organism
color pattern that allows an organism to blend with surrounding
allows organisms to escape from predators by advertising something harmful & distasteful
What is countershading?
color pattern that results in a dark back and light colored belly
What types of fishes have countershading adaptation?
open water fishes & shallow water predators
Describe the locomotion strategies in marine fishes.
some fish swim by using a rhythmic side to side motion of the body or tail. s-shaped waves of contractions (moving head to tail) to push against water. others use rhythmic contractions produced by myomeres ( bands of muscle )
How is the use of pectoral fins in sharks different than how bony fishes use them?
sharks pectoral fins provide lift like wings of a plane, since they don't have the buoyancy of a swim bladder like bony fishes. bony fishes, unlike sharks, do not have to rely on pectoral fins for life. this helps provide maneuverability
Describe how different types of sharks feed and give an example of each.
some sharks feed by taking bites from prey larger than themselves. they use their formable jaws & shake head. Ex. cookie cutter sharks
filter feeders filter water through gill rakers Ex. whale sharks, devil & manta rays
Describe the different shapes and location of the mouths of bony fishes and their function
protrusible jaws allow more flexibility in feeding habits than sharks and rays. roof of the mouth, gill rakers and pharynx have teeth to hold prey (barracuda). bony fishes have more teeth. bottom feeders have downward oriented mouths adapted to suck food from the bottom. grazers feed on seaweed, their front teeth are fused to form a beak like structure
Under what conditions do fish usually become territorial?
during reproduction, or when they have permanent territories used for feeding / resting. often guard territories to ensure they have enough food ( can be done by bluffing- raising fins / noises )
What is "schooling"?
fishes of the same species grouping together. helps offer protection against predation
How does schooling in bony fish compare to schooling in
most cartilaginous fish are solitary (alone) with the exception of some. most bony fishes travel in schools
Why do fish migrate?
some migrate daily onshore and offshore daily to feed. open water fishes migrate hundreds of meters up and downtime water column daily. Tunas, salmon ect. do transoceanic journeys. most fish migrate for food. migrations between sea and freshwater by fishes dependent on freshwater for reproduction
What is the difference between anadromous and catadromous
fishes? Give an example of each.
anadromous are fish that migrate to freshwater to breed. Ex. salmon
catadromous are freshwater fish that migrate to sea to breed
What is the difference between internal and external fertilization?
internal fertilization is when the sperm is directly transferred from male to female through copulation.
external fertilization is the release of gametes into the water
Give an example of the types of fish that tend to use internal
cartilaginous fishes- Male sharks, rays & skates
Give an example of the types of fish that tend to copulate.
bony fishes- sardines, tunas, and jacks
What is broadcast spawning and how successful is this strategy?
it is when they release spawn into the plankton and release as many eggs as possible to ensure that at least some hatch. most eggs released into plankton don't survive
What does oviparous mean?
an animal that releases eggs
Describe how oviparous fish mature, as in the case of sharks and skates. What is the role of the yolk of the egg?
the yolk provides energy for several months of development. this allows the pup to be well developed when it hatches. after days of development eggs hatch into free swimming larvae. when they first hatch they still carry the yolk in a yolk sac, which is eventually consumed and the larvae begin feeding
What does ovoviviparous mean?
an animal that an animal that produces eggs that hatch inside the female immediately before birth
What types of organisms fall into the ovoviviparous category?
whale shark, rock fishes, and sand tiger shark
What does viviparous mean?
animal whose eggs develop inside the female, while the embryo derives nutrition from the mother directly to the womb, or by the placenta
What types of fish fall into the viviparous category?
sharks and bony fishes
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