WHII SOL.14 & 16 Independence Movements, World Religions
Terms in this set (65)
founder of Indian National Independence movement; assassinated by a Hindu for trying to gain equal treatment for "untouchables"; belived in religious freedom and didn't belive in the caste system
First Prime Minister of independent India; kept India neutral in Cold War
Mohammed Ali Jinnah
first prime minister of Pakistan; demanded partition from India for Muslims; led to mass killings and chaos; died after two years of rule
Nehru's daughter; Prime Minister of India, assassinated in 1984; reformed India's agriculture and helped create nuclear program with aid from USSR
Dictator of Libya; tried to unite Arab and African nationalism; overthrows Libian government and becomes dicator, using their money to dress himself up; corrupt leadership leads to his own people rising against him and kill him in the streets
founder of Pan-African Independence movement (pride in being African); from Ghana; nonviolent independence
founder of Kenya; led Mau-Mau resistance movement; used violence vs. British
leader of the African National Congress; first black president of South Africa; influenced by Gandhi and MLK Jr's non-violent resistance; one of the most respected leaders ever; South Africa was very segregated; was in jail for a long time, was released and became first black president
Mobutu Sese Seko
Corrupt dictator of Zaire; set poor example of political leadership; used nation as bank account; exploited the wealth of the country for his family; ran the country into the ground
first president of Israel; Zionist (desire for Jewish homeland: Syria, Lebanon, Israel, etc. )
Israeli leader during wars w/Arab states. Strong ally of USA
Gamal Abdel Nasser
President of Egypt; founder of Pan-Arabism (more western culture); close ties to USSR (Aswan High Dam; built it with the USSR)
Corrupt US supported leader of Iran; until overthrown by Islamic Fundamentalism (1979); used secret police; threw fancy parties and had nice things
Leader of the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization); sought to create homeland
Ayatollah of Iranisan Islamic fundamentalist movement; face of scary Muslims in the 80s
Leader of Ba'ath Party and dicatotr of Iraq; secular, pan-Arabist, military leader; not a supporter of Benladdin; we were allies at one point, helped them to attack Iran
non-violence resistance to government laws/policies; ex. Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr.
truth life force- Ghandi's non-violent ideology
disputed region India and Pakistan have fought three wars over; both countries have nukes, making it a tense conflict
Jewish nationalism and desire for homeland in Palestine
nations who remained neutral during Cold War; ex. India
South African's racial segregation laws; similar to USA's "Jim Crow laws"
global movement for pride in African heritage and history
Arab nationalism and desiore to unify and bring together Arab states
first, second, and third world
terms to describe the rich, communism, and poor nations of the world
Algerian Civil War
1954-1962: France tried to keep colony; brutal conflict and ultimate failure
1956: Egypt takes Suez canal; GB, France and Israel attack; USA makes them back down
Six Day War
1967: Israel crushes Arab nations; huge embarrassment for Nasser; Israel takes West Bank, Gaza, Golan, and Sinai; beginning of the failure of Pan-Arabism
Yom Kippur War
1973: Egypt leads attack again; Arabs do better but USA steps in to stop fighting; leads to OPEC
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
place oil embargo on USA; leads to huge economic problems
Camp David Accords
President Jimmy Carter convinces Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) to sign a peace treaty; Israel returns Sinai and Egypt recognizes Israel's right to exist
(1987-1994; 2000-2005) Palestinian "uprising" in West Bank and Gaze Strip demanding Israel withdraw from their land and for the creation of a Palestinian state
1979: Shah Pahlavi wanted a westernized Iran; abused his power and uses secret police to punish opponents; Ayotollah Khomeini leads an Islamist revolution that forces the Shah to fall and establishes Shari (Islamic) Law; take US Embasy workers hostage when USA does not send Shah back to Iran; hated America because they see us as supporters of the Shah
a very conservative Islamic movement that wants to return Islamic nations to "fundamental" Islamic values and laws; opposed to "westernization" modernization and USA and USSR; also opposed to "secular" Islamic rulers like Nasser, Sadat, and Hussein
1980-1988: Hussein vs. Khomeini; Iraq attacks Iran; over 1 million killed and war ends in a stalemate; USA backs Iraq; secret deal with Iran; US is playing both sides in the war
First Gulf War
(1990-1991): Iraq attacks Kuwait; Hussein thinks no one will stand up to him; UN condemns act; USA leads an internatonal coalition (France, GB, and other Arab States) to defeat Iraq; worried over Hussein's control of 20% of world's oil reserves and potential to attack Saudi Arabia; Hussein stays in power until 2003
(1976-1979)"The killing field" Kyhmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot seek to remake country into ideal communist state; Reeducate millions and kill more; illiterate and farmers were put into power; literate, etc were reeducated, forced to work in hard labor condition; Communists in Vietnam invaded and ended the Kyhmer Rouge
(1992-1995) Breakup of Yugoslavial civil war between Croats, Serbs, and Bosnians. Massacre at Srebrenica led to NATO involvement; after Cold War soviet countries wanted to be independent; civil war breaks out; any Bosnian who reached Srebrenica was safe; Serbs came in and took weapons from the UN, got all men and boys and shot them; US finally helps: NATO, peace conference, relative peace established; bombing campaign
(1994) Hutu majority massacre Tutsi minority; UN and USA do nothing to stop it
The morals and religious conduct of Judaism.
The written record and beliefs of Hebrews.
Christians believe he is the son of God.
Life After Death
Those who followed Jesus will receive this.
The life and teachings of Jesus are contained in this.
Established by early church councils.
Believe in only one God.
The Prophet who established Islam.
Muslim holy book.
Faith, prayer, giving of alms, fasting, and pilgrimage.
Mecca and Medina
Most important holy cities to Muslims.
Siddharth Gautama (Buddha)
Founder of Buddhism.
Four Noble Truths
Belief that suffering is universal.
Buddhists believed this would get them to Enlightenment.
Buddhism was spread from India to the rest of Asia, including this country.
Spread Buddhism with missionaries and writings.
This religion believed there are many forms of one god.
Because all things are part of the divine creator, the soul never dies.
All thoughts and actions result in future consequences.
Located in Europe and the Middle East in 1500 C.E. Located in North and South America and Europe today.
Located in parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe in 1500 C.E. Located in Middle East, Africa, and Asia today.
Located in India and parts of Southeast Asia in 1500 C.E. Located in India today.
Located in East and Southeast Asia in 1500 C.E. Located in East and Southeast Asia today.
Located in Europe and the Middle East in 1500 C.E. Located in Israel and North America today.
Belief in many gods.
Belief in only one god.
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