29 terms

Euro IDs unit 1

ruled by medici fam (two popes) Birthplace of ren. $ from textiles and banking
small group of merchants ruled; traded with east—powerful and wealthy
Papal States
controlled by pope (rel. and sec. ruler). Huge arts patron. POPES: Alexander VI (Rodrigo borgia), Julius II (warrior pope), Leo X (dealt with luther), Clement VII
Kingdom of Naples
span. Vs French; span control in 1450—large pop...no econ
Visconti then Sforza families. Ludovico il Moro invited French which caused fall of Milan, then italy
Henry VII/Henry VIII (tudor family, 1485-1603); 1. War of Roses, laws vs. private army, Court of Star chamber, no call parliament. 2. Few taxes, own estates, dissolution of monasteries 3. Justices of Peace, no parliament 4. Henry VIII creates own church and names himself pope 5. Easy to defend an Island, conjoin with Scotland (1603)
Charles VII, Louis XI (Valois family); 1. 100 yrs war, prof. army (charles VII), power of nobles decrease-exempt from taxes 2. Taxes from commoners: Gabelle (salt), Taille (land), Aide (consumable), sold office, borrowed $ 3. Bailiffs, Estates Gen (parliament) not called, mid class royal council helped rule 4. Gallican Liberties (kings choose bishops), Concordat of Bologna (1516), F king controlled F clergy 5. Won 100 yrs war, split burgundy with HRE in 1477 (tried to take it in ren.)
Spain (superpower!)(NM)
Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles I; 1. Hermandad, Ferdinand in chivalric orders, middle class bureaucrats 2. $ from new world (Quinto), $ from church (reconquista), Alcabala, Inquisition 3. Royal council has power (not cortes (parliament)), hermandades, Corregidores 4. Reconquista, Los Reyes Catolicos, power to appt. bishop, INQUISITION (1479)—kick out jews=conversos (1492), muslims=moriscos (1502) 5. Reconquista (1492), conq. New world (1500s), Marriage of Juana to Phillip of Burgundy (son, Charles I/V was king of spain, Duke of Burgundy and Netherlands, and HRE)
Golden Bull of 1356
created 7 member electoral college in HRE of leaders of most important entities
Imperial Electors
Electoral college^ chose an emperor (usually Habsburg) for HRE—together they administrated and unified (a little bit) the empire
Reichstag and Diets
Like parliament; created to stop constant feuding
Maximillian I and Charles V(HRE)/I(spain)
under Max I, reichstag creates ban on private warfare, supreme court, imperial council of regency (imperial and internal policy). Charles V is only fortunate in gaining land (gets Hungarian crown in 1526). BUT hre has: various autonomous rulers, no taxes, various autonomous states, and split church ☹
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
pope divides new/undiscovered world b/w spain and portugal; P gets East and Brazil, S gets West and Phillipines
Columbian Exchange
exchange of things b/w old world and new world. Eg: food, animals, crops, people and DISEASES
English and French Explorations
John cabot sailed for NW passage (1497) found none, but began trading of stuff (cod) from Northeastern America. France explored last, into central north America—traded fur
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394-1460-conquest of Ceuta hints @ af. Gold and slave trade...continues to sail further south down coast of W af.
Bortholomeu Dias
first known European to sail around southern tip of Africa in 1488
Vasco da Gama (1498
1502), reached India in 1498. Even w/losses, earned 60x profit. Returned with more ships and became involved w/local warfare—trading posts at strategic locations
India and the Spice Islands
set up trading posts in India, Portugal tried to control spice trade. $ of spice decreased, and consumption of spice increased.
Ptolemy's Geographica
rediscovered in 1406-greek cartographer; believed earth was smaller than it is (no Americas) and a sphere.
Behaim's Map
map that lead colombus to believe he was in asia. First map of world as a sphere—lacked the Americas.
Christopher Columbus
first (Spanish) explorer to reach the New World, 1492. Wanted asia—so much he threatened his crew and natives unless they believed him. Crown disappointed, but had reasons to return and profited.
Conquistadors (H. Cortes and F. Pizarro)
Cortes defeated Aztecs of mexico in 1521, Pizarro defeated Incas of W. S. Am. in 1531. Took over and exploited ppl and land. Started new econ. in conquered areas
Ferdinand Magellan
first European to sail around southern tip of South Am in 1519. Continued West and was killed in a local war with phillipines. His body was carried by Juan del Cano and he was credited with circumnavigating globe. Spices paid for trip
Amerigo Vespucci
1499 and 1502 he "discovered" Venezuela and brazil. In 1507 waldseemuller created a map and named the Americas after him
Bartolome de las Casas
priest that publicized horrors of native exploitation.
economic system in which Spanish crown gave a certain person a group of natives to protect, in return for their labor. Declined by mid-1500s b/c people could become too powerful and it was inhumane to natives.
plantation on island run by spaniards
natives exploited, die from disease