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CDC Aerospace Medical Service Journeyman Volume 2. Anatomy and Physiology Unit 3 from text (key terms and small questions)
Terms in this set (108)
What two parts make up the digestive system/
Alimentary canal & the accessory organs
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
Largest portion of the liver; gallbladder; portion of the pancreas; portion of the transverse colon; portion of the small intestine
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
Small portion of the liver; stomach; portion of the pancreas; portion of the transverse colon; portion of the small intestine
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
Cecum; appendix, ascending colon; portion of the small intestine
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
Descending colon; sigmoid colon; portion of the small intestine
Lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the organs within it
A muscular tube that is 30 feet long; starts at the mouth, extends to the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine and terminates at the anus
4 layers of the alimentary canal
Serous, muscular, submucosa, and mucous membrane
Outer covering of the tube; helps secretions occur; keeps the tube lubricated
2nd layer of the alimentary canal; consists of two coats of smooth muscle tissue; responsible for the movement of substances
3rd layer of the alimentary canal; contains blood vessels, nerves, glands, and lymphatic vessels
4th layer of the alimentary canal; inner lining; assists in both the absorption and secretion digestive processes
What 2 muscles make up the tongue?
Intrinsic muscle and extrinsic skeletal muscles
Extrinsic skeletal muscles
Originate in the mandible, temporal and hyoid bones and they insert in the tongue
Located completely within the tongue
Extends from the pharynx to the stomach and is located posterior to the trachea
An opening that lets a portion of the esophagus penetrate the diaphragm
Small openings within the inner lining of the stomach
What are the 4 regions in the stomach?
Cardiac, fundic, body and pyloric
Near the esophagus; close to the cardiac sphincter
Extends in a balloon-like manner above the cardiac region; a temporary storage area for food and sometimes it fills with swallowed air
Main part of the stomach; located between the fundic and pyloric
Becomes narrow and joins with the small intestine
Ring of muscle surrounding nd serving to guard an opening or tube
18 to 20 feet long; extends from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine and it coils throughout most of the abdominal cavity
What are the 3 portions of the small intestine?
Duodenum; jejunum; Ileum
Shortest part of the small intestine; joins with the pyloric sphincter and then extends in to the jejunum
Middle portion of the small intestine
Connects to the large intestine through the ileocecal valve
Larger in diameter than the small intestine; 5 feet long; 4 portions
What are the 4 portions of the large intestine?
Cecum, colon, rectum, and anal
Connects with the ileocecal valve of the small intestine; one end extends downward to a closed of the large intestine called the appendix
Connected from the cecum; divided into four portions: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
Joined from the sigmoid colon; extends below the tip of the coccyx and leads to the anal canal
Connected from the rectum; extends to the anus which is protected by the internal and external anal sphincter
Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
Located in the central portion of the abdomen, between the duodenum and the spleen
Mixture of gastric juices and churned food
Cardiac sphincter valve
Prevents the food from pushing up into the esophagus
Chyme turned into this liquid once in the duodenum; produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Assist in movement and absorption of the contents of the small intestines
What are the 4 parts of the urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Concave portion of the kidneys; blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves and the ureter connect to the kidney
Part of the renal pelvis joins into this hollow chamber; two main areas
Outer area of the renal sinus; protect the vital kidney functions that occur within the renal medulla
Inner portion of the renal sinus
Make up the complex filtration system; composed of glomerulus (cluster of capillaries) total of 1 million
The glomerulus is enclosed within this thin sac
Muscular organs that provide a passage for urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
hollow muscular organ where urine is contained
Final passageway urine passes through; leads to the urinary meatus
How does the body know when to urinate?
The bladder will send a signal to the spinal cord when it becomes full; the signal usually occurs when the bladder had 250 ml of urine
What are the two parts of the male reproductive system?
Primary sex organs and the accessory sex organs
Made of a tough, fibrous capsule composed of connective tissue
The part of the system that passes through the prostate gland and on to the urethra
A semi round organ that surrounds the beginning of the urethra, just below the urinary bladder; secretes a fluid into the ejaculatory duct that helps protect the sperm from acidic secretions present in the female vagina
External accessory sex organs
Penis and scrotum
Composed of both erectile and connective tissue
Distal end of penis
External urinary meatus
Urethra extends along the lower interior surface of the penis and opens to the exterior of the body through this opening
What is the purpose of the male reproductive system?
To produce male sex cells (sperm) transport these cells to the female reproductive system, and secrete male sex hormones within the body
Secondary male sexual characteristics
With the help of testosterone these happen during puberty
Growth of body hair; thickening of the skin, thickening and strengthening of the bones, thickening of the vocal cords, increased muscle growth and development of broader shoulders
What two parts make up the female reproductive system?
Primary sex organs (ovaries) and the internal and external accessory organs
Primary sex organs; located inside the lateral wall of the pelvic cavity; held in position by ligaments
Internal accessory sex organs
Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina
4 inches long; extend from the uterus to the ovaries
Openings in the fallopian tubes with finger-like extensions
Upper two-thirds is called the body and the top of the body is called the fundus; lower third of the uterus is the cervix
What are the three layers of the uterine wall?
Perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
Outer layer that covers the uterine body and part of the cervix
Thick muscular inner portion of the uterus
Lines the inner wall of the uterus
Opening of the vagina partially covered by the hymen
What are the four external female sex organs?
Vulva: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris and vestibule
Protects the external reproductive organs; large fold of adipose tissue that contains sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles
Layer of connective tissue that contains many blood vessels
Small organ that is made of erectile tissue
Area of the vulva that is enclosed by the labia minora
What is the female reproductive system designed to do?
Produce ova, receive sperm from the male for fertilization of the ova, generate the growth of unborn offspring, give birth and nourish the newborn
First menstrual cycle; happens around the age of 13
Menses (first cycle of menstruation)
Blood, secretions and tissue debris flow from the uterus through the vagina for 3-7 days
What is the second phase of the menstruation cycle?
Begins on the 14th day, when an egg is released form one of the ovaries (ovulation)
What happens if an ovum is not fertilized?
The endometrium breaks up and discharges through the vagina on the 28th day of the menses cycle
What does estrogen and progesterone do?
Perform various functions and stimulate changes in the uterine lining
What are the secondary female sex characteristics?
Development of public hair, broader hips and narrower shoulders, and mammary glands and increased tissue mass in the hips abdomen and buttocks
Network of glands that produce and secrete the hormones
Cells that receive the hormones and act as receptors
What are the major hormonal glands of the body?
Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pancreas
The body's "master gland" because of it's controlling effect it has on the other glands; located in the brain;
What two sections are in the pituitary gland?
Anterior lobe and posterior lobe
Secretes six hormones; STH TSH ACTH PRL FSH LH
Secretes antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
Secretes three hormones; Calcitonin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine
One gland is attached to the top of each lobe of the thyroid gland and one is attached to the bottom of each lobe; secretes parathormone
Stimulates the release of calcium from the bones, causes kidneys to conserve calcium by preventing over excretion and assists in stimulating the intestines to absorb calcium
What are the two parts to the adrenal glands?
Adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
Outer part of the adrenal glands; secretes the aldosterone, cortisol and sex hormones
Helps regulate eletrolytes by causing sodium to be reabsorbed and potassium to be excreted
Promotes the metabolism of proteins and fats
Assist in stimulating the development of sex organs
Inner part of the adrenal glands; irregularly shaped cells that are grouped around blood vessels; secretes epinephrine and nonrepinephrine
Increases heart rate; causes skeletal muscle blood vessels and the airway to dilate; increases blood sugar and metoblosim
Increases the force of heart contractions; less effect on heart rate; causes skin blood vessels to constrict; affects the airway less than epinephrine; little effect on blood sugar; increase the metabolism
Long, flat organ attached to the duodenum by a duct
Islets of Langerhans
Contains cells that are closely associated with blood vessels and secrete three hormones: glucagon, insulin and somatostatin
Stimulates the liver to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol and to convert certain substances into glucose
Regulates metabolism of glucose and inhibits the conversion of certain substances into glucose
Helps regulate carbohydrates by inhibiting the secretion of glucagons
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