The epidermis, outer layer of the skin, has two layers, the outside is made up of dead cells, while the inner layer is made up of living cells, comes in contact with the environment.

The dermis, inner layer of the skin, lies under the epidermis and contains collagen fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, glands, sense organs, smooth muscles and hair follicles. chemistry14.123 Sulfur dioxide is quite soluble in water:
$$
\mathrm{SO}_2(g)+\mathrm{H}_2 \mathrm{O}(l) \rightleftharpoons \mathrm{H}_2 \mathrm{SO}_3(a q) \quad K=1.33
$$
The $\mathrm{H}_2 \mathrm{SO}_3$ produced is a weak diprotic acid ( $K_{\mathrm{al}}=1.5 \times 10^{-2}$; $\left.K_{22}=6.3 \times 10^{-8}\right)$. Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ and the concentrations of $\mathrm{H}_2 \mathrm{SO}_3, \mathrm{HSO}_3{ }^{-}$, and $\mathrm{SO}_3{ }^{2-}$ in a solution prepared by continuously bubbling $\mathrm{SO}_2$ at a pressure of $1.00$ atm into pure water.
14.124 Classify each of the following salt solutions as neutral, acidic, or basic. See Appendix $\mathrm{C}$ for values of equilibrium constants.
(a) $\mathrm{NH}_4 \mathrm{~F}$
(b) $\left(\mathrm{NH}_4\right)_2 \mathrm{SO}_3$
14.125 Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ and the percent dissociation of the hydrated cation in the following solutions. See Appendix $\mathrm{C}$ for the value of the equilibrium constant.
(a) $0.010 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{Cr}\left(\mathrm{NO}_3\right)_3$
(b) $0.0050 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{Cr}\left(\mathrm{NO}_3\right)_3$
(c) $0.0010 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{Cr}\left(\mathrm{NO}_3\right)_3$
14.126 Beginning with the equilibrium equation for the dissociation of a weak acid $\mathrm{HA}$, show that the percent dissociation varies directly as the square root of $K_{\mathrm{n}}$ and inversely as the square root of the initial concentration of HA when the concentration of HA that dissociates is negligible compared with its initial concentration.
14.127 Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ and the concentrations of all species present in $0.25 \mathrm{M}$ solutions of each of the salts in Problem 14.124. (Hint: The principal reaction is proton transfer from the cation to the anion.)
14.128 For a solution of two weak acids with comparable values of $K_w$, there is no single principal reaction. The two acid-dissociation equilibrium equations must therefore be solved simultaneously. Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ in a solution that is $0.10 \mathrm{M}$ in acetic acid $\left(\mathrm{CH}_3 \mathrm{CO}_2 \mathrm{H}_2 K_2=1.8 \times 10^{-5}\right)$ and $0.10 \mathrm{M}$ in benzoic acid $\left(\mathrm{C}_6 \mathrm{H}_5 \mathrm{CO}_2 \mathrm{H}_2 K_4=6.5 \times 10^{-5}\right)$. (Hint: Let $x=\left[\mathrm{CH}_3 \mathrm{CO}_2 \mathrm{H}\right]$ that dissociates and $y=\left[\mathrm{C}_6 \mathrm{H}_5 \mathrm{CO}_2 \mathrm{H}\right]$ that dissociates; then $\left[\mathrm{H}_3 \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]=x+y$.)
14.129 What is the $\mathrm{pH}$ and the principal source of $\mathrm{H}_3 \mathrm{O}^{+}$ions in $1.0 \times 10^{-10} \mathrm{M} \mathrm{HCl}$ ? (Hint: The $\mathrm{pH}$ of an acid solution can't exceed 7.) What is the $\mathrm{pH}$ of $1.0 \times 10^{-7} \mathrm{M} \mathrm{HCl}$ ?
14.130 When $\mathrm{NO}_2$ is bubbled into water, it is completely converted to $\mathrm{HNO}_3$ and $\mathrm{HNO}_2$ :
$$
2 \mathrm{NO}_2(g)+\mathrm{H}_2 \mathrm{O}(l) \longrightarrow \mathrm{HNO}_3(a q)+\mathrm{HNO}_2(a q)
$$
Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ and the concentrations of all species present $\left(\mathrm{H}_3 \mathrm{O}^{+}, \mathrm{OH}^{-}, \mathrm{HNO}_2, \mathrm{NO}_2^{-}\right.$, and $\left.\mathrm{NO}_3{ }^{-}\right)$in a solution prepared by dissolving $0.0500 \mathrm{~mol}$ of $\mathrm{NO}_2$ in $1.00 \mathrm{~L}$ of water. $K_2$ for $\mathrm{HNO}_2$ is $4.5 \times 10^{-4}$.
14.131 Acid and base behavior can be observed in solvents other than water. One commonly used solvent is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which can be treated as a monoprotic acid "HSol." Just as water can behave either as an acid or a base, so HSol can behave either as a Bronsted-Lowry acid or base.
(a) The equilibrium constant for self-dissociation of HSol (call it $\left.K_{\mathrm{HSsl}}\right)$ is $1 \times 10^{-35}$. Write the chemical equation for the self-dissociation reaction and the corresponding equilibrium equation. (Hint: The equilibrium equation is analogous to the equilibrium equation for $K_w$ in the case of water.)
(b) The weak acid $\mathrm{HCN}$ has an acid-dissociation constant $K_{\mathrm{a}}=1.3 \times 10^{-13}$ in the solvent HSoL If $0.010 \mathrm{~mol}$ of NaCN is dissolved in $1.00 \mathrm{~L}$ of $\mathrm{HSol}$, what is the equilibrium concentration of $\mathrm{H}_2 \mathrm{Sol}^{+}$? 13th EditionDavid N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis1,402 solutions

15th EditionDavid Shier, Jackie Butler, Ricki Lewis1,950 solutions

13th EditionDavid N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis1,402 solutions

12th EditionElaine N. Marieb, Lori A. Smith1,518 solutions