BIOL 1202 Pomarico Chapter 30
Terms in this set (48)
Characteristics for seed plants
- No longer require water for reproduction
- Gametophyte greatly reduced
- Seeds replace spores
Female gametophyte is an ______. The seed develops from this.
Male gametophyte is
__________ of seed plants develop within the walls of spores retained within tissues of the parent sporophyte. So the ___________ is no longer independent.
Two types of spores are seen in the seed plants. They are called....
gives rise to the female gametophyte
gives rise to the male gametophyte. They develop into pollen grains which can be dispersed by wind or animals, eliminating the need for water in fertilization
female gametophyte is an ovule containing an ________
male gametophyte is a pollen grain containing _______
The outer layer of the ovule is the _________ (layer of sporophyte tissue) and the tissue of the ovule is _____
A _______ can give rise to a pollen tube that allows for passage of sperm into the female gametophyte. Grows a tube down through the style towards the ovary
seed coat, embryo
When the seed develops from the ovule, the integuments become the ___________, the zygote becomes the _______, the seed also contains tissue that acts as food for the new plant.
Flowering Plants, make up the vast majority of modern land plants and have more than 250,000 species.
Gymnosperms and angiosperms show difference in the production of ______
The seeds of the gymnosperm are referred to as "________" meaning there is no extra outer covering.
The seeds of the Angiosperms have an additional covering which is the _______. The main function of the ______ is to aid in seed dispersal.
embryo, stored food, and seed coat
The overall seed structure is similar for both gymnosperms and angiosperms with:
In the gymnosperm, the stored food in the seed is ______ and arose directly from the ______ gametophyte.
triploid, male and female
In the angiosperm, the stored food is ______ and arises from a combination of _________ gametophyte material
Coniferophytes, Cycadophytes, Ginkgophytes, Gnetophytes
The gymnosperms include:
most are cone-bearing trees, such as pines and ferns. Evergreens including Pine, Fir, Spruce, Cypress, Redwood. They are currently the most successful because of their ability to live under a wide variety of conditions (including very harsh conditions).
seed plants typically characterized by a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk with a crown of large, hard and stiff, evergreen leaves
is a plant order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree
consists of three genera of woody plants grouped in the gymnosperms
Pollen and Dominant Sporophyte
The life cycle of the gymnosperms show two of the key characteristics of seed plants:
Flowers, seeds enclosed in a fruit (ovary of a flower), broad leaves, advanced vascular tissue
The main characteristics of angiosperms include:
_______ are specialized shoots with modified leaves which are specific for sexual reproduction
Sepals, petals, stamens, carpel
Complete flowers have 4 main parts, what are they?
a modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower but before it opens
a modified leaf of a flowering plant. These are often the colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.
pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament
the ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary
The _______ contains the pollen grains (male gametophyte)
The ________ is the top of the vase. It is a sticky structure designed to catch the pollen.
The ______ is the neck of the vase. The pollen must "grow" through this to reach the egg.
The ______ is the bottom of the vase. The _____ contains the ovules, which become seeds. The outer layers of the ______ become the fruit.
Plants using the wind to disperse their seeds, very light seeds which the wind can easily carry, seeds covered in feathery materials, seeds that look and act like helicopter rotors, which may spin and fly in the wind
Plants using water to disperse their seeds, tendency to grow near the sea or rivers, and seeds or fruit that can float, allowing them to be carried away from the mother plant by water
Plants that use mechanical means to disperse their seeds (also known as self-dispersal), Fruit that split or shatter suddenly, throwing their seeds away from the mother plant. This is common in many legumes (like peas and beans)
Plants using animals to disperse their fruit. Fleshy edible fruit, where the flesh is consumed and the seed passed out or discarded at another location, sticky or clinging fruit or seeds which attached themselves to passing animals, to be dislodged at another location
_________ starts when pollen from an anther lands on a stigma
In angiosperm pollination and fertilization, the 2 sperm cells from the generative cell move down the tube to the ovary where a ___________ occurs. Two sperms fuse with two egg cells to form the zygote and endosperm.
Basil angiosperms, magnolids, monocots, eudicots (dicots)
The angiosperms include:
monocots and dicots
What are the two most abundant types of angiosperms?
flower structure is arranged in group of threes, narrow with parallel veins in the leaves, scattered vascular bundles in the vascular tissue, many smaller roots, pollen has single opening, one cotyledon
flower structure is arranged in groups of four or five, wider with branching netlike veins in the leaves, ring of vascular bundles in the vascular tissue, one main taproot, pollen has three openings, two cotyledons
The plant embryo contains the __________ (seed leaves)