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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. kinase
  2. Intracellular Receptors
  3. Synaptic Signaling (local)
  4. protein phosphates
  5. transcription factors
  1. a A nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse, stimulating the target cell
  2. b enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups
  3. c found in either the cytoplasm or in the nucleus of target cells
    chemical signaling messengers must pass through the membrane to reach this receptor, so the chemical messengers are either hydrophobic, or small enough to cross the membrane (ex. steroid and thyroid hormones in animals)
  4. d control which genes are turned on (which gense are transcribed to mRNA) ex. testosterone
  5. e enzymes that can rapidly remove phophate groups from proteins (a process called dephosphorylation)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Binding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initating the conversion of a signal to a form to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
  2. plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein
    used by yeast mating factors, epinephrine, other hormones and neurotransmitters
    NOT enzymes
    G-protein is active when bound to a GTP
  3. Specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids (often the blood)
  4. A chemical signal is detected when signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein located at the cell's surface or inside the cell
  5. also called plant growth regulators

5 True/False questions

  1. quorum sensing"controlled cell suicide" cells that are infected, damaged, or have reached the end of their functional life span


  2. ligand-gated ion channelalso called plant growth regulators


  3. Paracrine Signaling (local)secreting cell acts on a nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (a growth factor, etc.) into the extracellular fluid


  4. Responsetransduction signal finally triggers some sort of response


  5. second messengerssmall, non-protein, water soluble molecules or ions
    can readily spread throught the cell by diffusion