First Neanderthal find - 1856 - originally dismissed as being some poor idiot or hermit.
Bones with cut marks and fractures showing cannibalism, skull fragment of serious wound that healed, showing Neanderthals cared for each other
Sierra de Atapuerca Cave
Three nearly complete skulls in showing cannibalism, burial of dead, and use of teeth as "third hand."
Hundreds of flint tools and animal bones, shows Neanderthals had more complex tools and hunt than previously thought and hunted in groups.
Shanidar Cave burial
A man, two women and an infant buried together with wildflowers - suggests Neanderthals were thinking and caring about their dead.
A 40 year old man with severe injuries: crushed bone around eye, withered right arm, arthritis in right ankle, and big toe, and healed fracture on outside of foot.
The Tata Ivory
A carved and polished ivory tooth from a baby mammoth, shows Neanderthals valued art and possibly had symbolic thought.
A hyoid bone belonging to a skeletons shows Neanderthals' were identical to humans and could speak. Found in Israel.
The last evidence of Neanderthals consisting of a few jawbones and femurs, found in Spain, 29,000 years ago
El Sidron Cave
Many Neanderthals cannibalized, showed signs of nutritional stress in teeth, show versions of gene FOXP2 which contributes to speech and language.