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Neanderthal Finds

Neanderthal finds from Review Chart
Neander Valley
First Neanderthal find - 1856 - originally dismissed as being some poor idiot or hermit.
Vindija Cave
Bones with cut marks and fractures showing cannibalism, skull fragment of serious wound that healed, showing Neanderthals cared for each other
Sierra de Atapuerca Cave
Three nearly complete skulls in showing cannibalism, burial of dead, and use of teeth as "third hand."
Bianche-Saint-Vaast Cave
Hundreds of flint tools and animal bones, shows Neanderthals had more complex tools and hunt than previously thought and hunted in groups.
Shanidar Cave burial
A man, two women and an infant buried together with wildflowers - suggests Neanderthals were thinking and caring about their dead.
Shanidar 3
A 40 year old man with a punctured long, suggests Neanderthals cared for their injured.
Shanidar 1
A 40 year old man with severe injuries: crushed bone around eye, withered right arm, arthritis in right ankle, and big toe, and healed fracture on outside of foot.
The Tata Ivory
A carved and polished ivory tooth from a baby mammoth, shows Neanderthals valued art and possibly had symbolic thought.
Hyoid Bone
A hyoid bone belonging to a skeletons shows Neanderthals' were identical to humans and could speak. Found in Israel.
Gibraltar Cave
The last evidence of Neanderthals consisting of a few jawbones and femurs, found in Spain, 29,000 years ago
El Sidron Cave
Many Neanderthals cannibalized, showed signs of nutritional stress in teeth, show versions of gene FOXP2 which contributes to speech and language.
Saint Cesair Cave
Many sophisticated tools showing imitation of Homo Sapiens
Arcy-sur-Cure Cave
A layer of sediment containing ornaments, a sign of possible symbolic thought.
Pech de L'Aze Cave
Crayon like blocks of manganese dioxide, possibly used as body art
Gorham's and Vanguard Cave
Dolfins and seals show Neanderthals exploited resources
Hohle Fel Cave
Artifacts and tools that show humans created larger variety of tools than Neanderthals, but both groups engaged in similar activities.