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Neanderthal finds from Review Chart

Neander Valley

First Neanderthal find - 1856 - originally dismissed as being some poor idiot or hermit.

Vindija Cave

Bones with cut marks and fractures showing cannibalism, skull fragment of serious wound that healed, showing Neanderthals cared for each other

Sierra de Atapuerca Cave

Three nearly complete skulls in showing cannibalism, burial of dead, and use of teeth as "third hand."

Bianche-Saint-Vaast Cave

Hundreds of flint tools and animal bones, shows Neanderthals had more complex tools and hunt than previously thought and hunted in groups.

Shanidar Cave burial

A man, two women and an infant buried together with wildflowers - suggests Neanderthals were thinking and caring about their dead.

Shanidar 3

A 40 year old man with a punctured long, suggests Neanderthals cared for their injured.

Shanidar 1

A 40 year old man with severe injuries: crushed bone around eye, withered right arm, arthritis in right ankle, and big toe, and healed fracture on outside of foot.

The Tata Ivory

A carved and polished ivory tooth from a baby mammoth, shows Neanderthals valued art and possibly had symbolic thought.

Hyoid Bone

A hyoid bone belonging to a skeletons shows Neanderthals' were identical to humans and could speak. Found in Israel.

Gibraltar Cave

The last evidence of Neanderthals consisting of a few jawbones and femurs, found in Spain, 29,000 years ago

El Sidron Cave

Many Neanderthals cannibalized, showed signs of nutritional stress in teeth, show versions of gene FOXP2 which contributes to speech and language.

Saint Cesair Cave

Many sophisticated tools showing imitation of Homo Sapiens

Arcy-sur-Cure Cave

A layer of sediment containing ornaments, a sign of possible symbolic thought.

Pech de L'Aze Cave

Crayon like blocks of manganese dioxide, possibly used as body art

Gorham's and Vanguard Cave

Dolfins and seals show Neanderthals exploited resources

Hohle Fel Cave

Artifacts and tools that show humans created larger variety of tools than Neanderthals, but both groups engaged in similar activities.

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