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American History Final
Terms in this set (103)
Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor
society in which people of different nationalities assimilate to form one culture
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Chinese Exclusion Act
law that barred Chinese laborers from entering the United States
agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society
Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants
William "Boss" Tweed
Polical Machine Leader of NYC's Tammany Hall. Corrupt in spending tax dollars. Benefit voters for votes and politicians for graft/greed.
the group of people whose job it is to carry out the work of the government
aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947).
This amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
the right to vote
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, important role in the women's rights movement.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Meat Inspection Act
Decreed that preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Co-founded the NAACP to help secure legal equality for minority citizens.
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
19th Amendment (1920)
Gave women the right to vote
domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
Open Door Policy
American statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there
Roosevelt's extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
reliance on military strength
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
member of the black hand; shot Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and wife set off WWI
A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
No Man's Land
A strip of land beween the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WW1
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
An agreement to stop fighting
Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's Peace proposal stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
League of Nations
an international organization formed to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
This scientist received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone and motion picture equipment.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
American inventor of the Pullman sleeping car and founder of Pullman, Illinois
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
supply and demand
relationship between the amount of product and the desire for the product
Interstate Commerce Act
law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Companies that control all production of a good or service.
Sherman Antitrust Act
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
Pullman Company Strike
Company laid off thousands and cut wages of the rest without cutting cost of homes. Boycotting of Pullman trains. Strike went violent. Troops sent in.
Mary Harris Jones
Most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement
factors of prodution
resources required to produce items: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurs
A form of government in which the citizens directly elect a president
A government controlled by religious leaders
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.
A democracy in which parliament chooses the government.
Why did the US imperialize?
Manifest destiny, bigger economy, more resources, foreign investments, to become the world power.
Why did African Americans move north?
For jobs, better living conditions, better pay, and to chase the now closer to attain but still distant "American Dream"
a movement that emphasized science and reason as guides to help see the world more clearly
How did labor unions help workers?
People united to improve working conditions, decline due to Association with violence
A literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture.
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Why did the US isolate themselves?
With a combination of the Great Depression and the losses after WWI, American opinion and policy pushed toward isolationism to keep away from all conflict.
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
buying on credit
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
regulates stock market
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits up to $5000, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)
relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
WPA (Works Progress Administration)
key New Deal agency that provided work relief through various public-works projects
US policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism
Fear of Communism; accusing everyone of being communist.
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Base in Hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which caused America to enter the war.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
the removal of Japanese Americans from the West to prison camps during World War II
US economy during WWII
Government intervention increased, food, gas, clothing was all rationed to help with the war.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
One vote for each State, regardless of size.
- Congress powerless to lay and collect taxes or duties.
- Congress powerless to regulate foreign and interstate commerce.
- No executive to enforce acts of Congress. No national court system.
- Amendment only with consent of all States. A 9/13 majority required to pass laws. Articles only a "firm league of friendship."
supporters of the Constitution
States created by the Northwest Ordinance
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Father of the Constitution
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
A period of general fear of communists
Movement of African Americans from the South to the North for jobs.
Second New Deal
a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days.
Growth of the Suburbs
After World War II, people began to move away from cities, leading to suburban growth
Causes of this migration included the mass production of automobiles, the growth of the road system, and better living conditions
Developed polio vaccine
NOW (National Organization for Women)
organization established by Betty Friedan to combat discrimination against women
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions