Physical Science 4th Quarter Exam Review
Terms in this set (404)
a way of cancelling units in order to solve a problem
the study of energy and it how it makes matter behave
an object we assume that we use to judge motion
frame of reference
True/ false A frame of reference can move.
the distance an object moves in an given amount of time
what is the formula for speed?
speed = distance/time
Speed in a given direction
If two velocities are moving in opposite directions, you ________ to find the resultant velocity.
If two velocities are moving in the same direction you _____ to find the resultant velocity.
when we calculate speed,we usually calculate the ___________ over the whole trip.
a force, velocity or other vector quantity that is equivalent to the combined effect of two or more vectors
a quantity that has both magnitude and direction
the rate at which velocity changes over time
an object will accelerate if it _______________________ up, _________________ down, or _________________ _______________________
speeds, slows, changes direction
an increase in velocity over a period of time( speeding up)
a decrease in velocity over a period of time(slowing down)
True/False you can have a negative speed
false, speed cannot go slower than zero
True/False you cannot have a negative acceleration
false, you can
what is the formula for acceleration?
whenever the direction of a moving object changes, the velocity of the object changes
change in direction
acceleration caused by n=motion in a circle
If you change the speed, do you change the velocity?
yes, any change in speed is acceleration
The object is said to be constantly acceleration because.......
its direction is constantly changing
A push or a pull that causes an object to
start moving,stop moving or change direction
All forces have a ______ and ____________.
magnitude and direction
The overall force acting on an object after all the forces are combined
Force is measured in
A newton is = to
Does not cause a change in motion
Objects accelerate in the direction of the greater force
If two forces are exerted in the same direction, you ____________ to get the net force
If two forces are exerted in opposite direction you _____________ to get the net force.
Can you have a negative force?
no, you cannot have a negative force
A force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are in contact
The force that acts on an object that are not moving
This force tries to resist an abject from moving
A force that acts on an object when it rolls across a surface
Is rolling less than sliding friction?
yes, it is much less
Force that opposes the motion of an object as it moves through a fluid
Fluids are _______________ and _________________
liquids and gases
The amount of friction depends on what?
of an object and the
of the object
a force that acts between 2 masses
every object in the universe that attracts every other object
law of universal gravitation
The greater the ____________ of the object, the greater the gravitational pull.
The greater the ________ between the objects, the weaker the pull becomes.
What is the acceleration due to gravity on Earth?
What is the acceleration due to gravity on the moon?
What is the gravity on the sun?
Weight is the force of gravity acting on a object mass
weight and mass
the amount of matter in an object
true/False Mass changes at any one point in time however weight depends on gravity
What is the formula for weight?
weight= mass * gravity
What is weight measured in?
Mass is measured in?
kilograms (kg) , pounds (lbs)
tool that measures weight
1 kg = ? lbs
when gravity is the only force acting on a falling object
where does free fall occur?
a place (like outer space) where there is no air
Heavier objects ________________ fall to Earth faster than lighter objects.
All objects fall to Earth at the __________ rate.
same ( 9.8 m/s/s)
Why do all objects do not hit the ground at the dame time?
Air resistance and the amount of surface area of the object
The curved path that an object follows when thrown near the Earth's surface
A ___________ is any object that is thrown or shot through the air.
What is the curved path of projectile motion caused by:
the horizontal forward velocity and the downward force of gravity
the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal to the force of gravity
what happens when a object hits terminal velocity?
it will continue to fall at the same speed for the rest of the time it is falling
Objects that are less dense and have more surface area reach terminal velocity ______________ than objects that are more dense.
Object that are less dense have ________ surface area and reach terminal velocity ___________.
objects move forward but are in free fall towards the earth. Because the earth is round, the object will never hit the earth because it is traveling too fast horizontally.
what follows the curve of the Earth's surface?
the space shuttle
How fast does the space shuttle travel?
17,500 miles per hour
an object at rest will remain at rest, an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted by an outside force
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
what is the 1st Law of Motion called?
Law of Inertia
the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
More mass = ____ inertia
the force acting on an object is equal to the objects mass times its acceleration
Newtons's second Law of Motion
what is the formula for force?
Force = mass x acceleration
what is the units for Force?
What is mass measured in?
what is acceleration measured in?
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
what is the third law of motion called?
a property of all moving objects
the product of an object's mass and its velocity
what is the formula for momentum?
momentum = mass x velocity
momentum cannot be destroyed or created
law of conservation of Momentum
momentum is conserved during a _____________
what is an example of a big collision?
bowling bar vs basketball
conservation of momentum
the buoyant force on an object is
to the weight of the volume of water displaced by the object
why does a ship float and a penny sink?
1. hollow ( air)
2. weight is spread out over a large area.
takes in air and water to help the submarines go up and down in the water
swim bladder fills with air
Helium is less dense than air
of a fluid,
within the fluid
What are the forces on a plane in flight?
lift, drag, thrust, and weight
force created that pushes the plane up
the shape of a cross-section of an airplane wing that is curved on the top and flat on the bottom
How does the shape of airfoil create lift? (1)
air moves over the top and the bottom of the wing
How does the shape of airfoil create lift? (2)
air on the top and on the bottom reaches the back of the wing at the same time
How does the shape of airfoil create lift?(3)
the air on the top of the wing must travel faster than the air below the wing ( because it has to travel a greater distance)
How does the shape of airfoil create lift? (4)
This low pressure above the wing and high pressure below the wing. This creates lift.
What helps a bird fly. (3 things)
1. hollow bones
2. features create a streamline along the body
3. airfoil shape wings
What are the two conditions that must happen for work to be done on an object?
a force must be applied and the object must move in the direction of the applied force.
What happens when a object does not move?
no work is being done
What is the formula for work?
work = force x distance
the amount of time of work done is a given amount of time
what is the formula for power?
power = work/time
what is the unit for work?
what is the unit for time?
What is the unit for power?
Another unit for power
1 horsepower equals
a liquid or a gas ( any substance that can flow)
Where is pressure exerted in a fluid?
equally in all directions
measures atmospheric pressure
of water increases as
( more water above the pushing down on the object)
the weight of the air above a certain location
Air( atmospheric pressure)
What happens to air pressure as altitude increases?
the amount of force distributed over an area
what is the formula for pressure?
pressure = force/area
mass per unit volume
What happens to the object if it is less dense than the fluid it it is in?
it will float
What happens to the object if it is more dense than the fluid it is in?
it will sink
an upward force that fluids exert on matter
Do object lose weight in water?
No, they do not
why do objects in water feel lighter in water?
Buoyant force acts upon all objects in water
If the weight of the object is less than the buoyant force, the object will _______.
If the weight of the object is greater than the buoyant force, the object will ___
If the weight of the object is equal to the Buoyant force, the object will ___________.
What is the density of water?
the ability to do work
Energy is transformed to that object
What happens when work is done on an object?
it is measured by how much work an object does
How is energy measured?
stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
What is the formula for potential energy?
energy of motion
What is the formula for kinetic energy
energy can be converted from form to another
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be converted from one form to another
Wood to light and heat
What is an example for conservation of energy?
What unit is Potential and Kinetic energy measured in?
Heat flows from ___ objects to ___ objects.
hot to cold
What is heat energy measured in?
Joules or calories
energy transferred between 2 objects due to a temperature difference
a measure of the
average kinetic energy
of the particles of a substance
What happens when the particles move fast?
The hotter the object becomes
What happens if you have a lot of a substance?
The more heat energy must be absorbed for its temperature to go up
the tool to measure temperature
What are the substances inside a thermometer?
mercury or colored alcohol
What are the three temperature scales?
Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin
What are the metric scales?
What is the English scale?
What is the Kelvin scale used for?
It is used to measure very low temperatures
the temperature where all particles motion in a substance stops
Boiling point in Celsius
100 degrees Celsius
Normal body temperature in Celsius
37 degrees Celsius
Freezing point in Celsius
0 degrees Celsius
Absolute zero in Celsius
-273 degrees Celsius
Boiling Point in Fahrenheit
212 degrees Fahrenheit
Normal body temperature in Fahrenheit
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
Freezing point in Fahrenheit
32 degrees Fahrenheit
Absolute zero in Fahrenheit
-459.4 Degrees Fahrenheit
Boiling point in Kelvin
Normal Body temperature in Kelvin
Freezing point in Kelvin
Absolute Zero in Kelvin
What is the formula to convert Celsius to Kelvin?
K = C +273
What is the formula to convert Kelvin to Celsius?
What is the formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit?
( C* 9/5)+32
What is the formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius?
substances that easily allow heat and electricity to flow through
substances that do
allow heat and electricity to move through
What are the three ways heat can transfer?
conduction, convection, radiation
heat transfer due to a direct contact
heat transfer due to movement of a fluid
heat transfer through infrared waves
What kinds of objects radiate heat to the atmosphere?
Where can radiation take place?
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg or g of a
If the substance has a low specific heat what will happen to the substance?
the substance will get hotter
Specific Heat Formula
Q = mcΔT
What does Q equal?
What does M mean?
What does C equal?
what does ΔT equal?
change in temperature
What unit is heat energy measured in?
What unit is mass measured in?
kilograms or grams
What unit is specific heat measured in?
°C or Cal/ kg
what unit is ΔT measured in?
What is the specific Heat for Aluminum ?
897 J/kg * °C
What is the specific heat for iron ?
0.11 calories/ g* °C
What is the specific heat for silver?
235 J/kg *°C
What is the Specific Heat for Mercury?
140 J/kg *°C
What is the Specific Heat for Water?
4186 J/kg *°C
What is the Specific Heat for Gold?
129 J/kg *°C
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of
1 calorie = ____ joules
tool that measures the amount of heat given to water when a substance is burned
an increase in volume
(size) due to heat
What kind of strip is thermal Expansion
What is the charge of a proton?
What is the charge of a neutron?
What is the charge of an electron?
Where are protons and neutrons located?
Where are electrons located?
outside the nucleus
Negatively charged______ are the subatomic particles that can move.
How does an object become charged?
move from one object to another and build up on that object
What do like charges do?
What do opposite charges do?
What happens when an object
It becomes negatively charged
the space around the object
when electrons build up on an object and remain
What is an example of static electricity?
How many ways that objects can become charged?
electrons transfer when 2 objects rub together
What are examples of friction?
Balloon, laundry, doorknob
electrons transfer due to a
a tool that detects static electricity
What is an example of conduction?
charges are rearranged within objects
without physical contact
What is an example of induction?
Electroscope, balloon on a wall
materials through which electrons can easily move
What is an example of a conductor?
materials through which electrons
What are examples of insulators?
plastic, wood, rubber, glass, Styrofoam, air
a large form of static electricity
when charges build up in one place and quickly move to another
An electric shock is a __________ form of static electric discharge
protects building by conducting electrons to the ground
How does lighting form? (1)
water molecules and matter in the clouds rub together and produce charge by friction
How does lighting form? (2)
the lower part of the cloud is negative and the upper part is positive
How does lighting form? (3)
the Negative charge on the bottom
a positive charge in objects on the ground
How does lighting form? (4)
Charges move from the cloud to the ground ( or another cloud)
a continuous flow of electric charge ( electrons that move along a path)
what is electric current measured in?
How many types of electric currents are there?
charges flow in only one direction
what are examples of Direct currents?
flashlight,iPod, cell phone, ( battery operated devices)
a flow of electric charge that regularly reverses its direction
What are examples of Alternating Current?
Anything you plug in at home or school ( blow dryer, TV, oven, washer)
Source of electrons. Energy needed to push the electrons through the wire provided by a battery
Voltage ( Potential Difference)
What is voltage measured in?
what is the tool called to measure voltage?
How many volts do all batteries have?
the opposition to the flow of electrons
What is resistance measured in?
the tool used to measure resistance
what are examples of resistance?
light bulb, flashlight, curling iron, TV
the current in a circuit is equal to the
divided by the
what is the formula for Ohm?
I = voltage/ resistance
a continuous, closed path along which electrons can move
What are the parts of a circuit?
Battery cell, wire, resistor, and switch
source of electrons provides the voltage
path for the electrons to travel
a device that uses electrical energy to do work
What is an example of resistor?
a thin wire inside a light bulb that allows electrons to flow
conductors will have ________ resistance.
conductors will have _________ resistance.
Long, thin wires have ___________ resistance than short, thick wires.
open and closes the circuit
Electrons move from _______________ to ____________.
negative to positive
How many types of Circuits are there?
A circuit that has
only one path
along which electrons can flow.
If one light goes out, they all go out
A circuit that has one path along which electrons can flow
What is an example of series circuit?
If one light goes out, the others remain lit
What is an example of Parallel circuit?
lights at home or school
Example of a series circuit
Example of a parallel circuit
How many types of cell ( batteries are there)
the electrolyte is a dry paste
what is an example of a dry cell?
a substance through which charges can move
the electrolyte is a liquid (acid)
What is an example of a wet cell?
Electrolytes are usually....
2n(-) and (Cu) (+)
power is equal to voltage multiplied by current
What is the formula for electric power?
What unit is power measured in?
( in your home) energy is equal to power multiplied by time
What is the formula for Electrical Energy?
What is the unit for electrical energy?
kilowatt-hour or watt-hour
a device with a metal strip that burns away when too much current passes through circuit. This prevents the circuit from getting overload.
switch that opens when the current passing through a circuit is too high
a Disturbance that transmits
through matter or space
How is a mechanical wave created?
when a source of energy causes a
to travel through a
the material through which a wave travels can be a solid,liquid, or gas
How are waves classified?
by how the medium waves move in relation to the movement of the waves
How many types of mechanical waves are there?
a wave in which the medium moves at
to the direction in which the wave travels
What is an example of a transverse wave?
light and heat
the original position of the medium before the wave passes through
line of origin
the highest point of the wave
the lowest point of the wave
the distance from the line of origin to the top of a crest or the bottom of the trough
the distance from a crest to a crest to a trough to a trough
the distance from a point on one wave to the same point in the next wave
a wave in which the medium moves
in the same direction
as the movement of the wave
What is an example of a longitudinal wave?
an area where the particles of the medium are close together
an area where the particles of the medium are far apart
the distance between 2 compressions or rarefactions
the number of complete
that pass a point in a given amount of
What is frequency measured in?
What is an example of frequency?
Am or Fm Radio
What does one wave equal?
1 crest and 1 trough or 1 compression and 1 rarefaction
the ________of a wave is equal to the
multiplied by the
What is the formula for speed?
frequency x wavelength
what is the unit for speed?
What is the unit for wavelength?
when a wave bounces off a hard, flat surface
What is an example of a reflector?
echo ( gym), light
the bending of a wave as it
moves around an obstacle
or through a narrow opening
what is an example of a diffraction?
Sound bends around corners, ocean waves
What diffracts more than light?
the bending of a wave
as it enters a new medium
at an angle ( due to a change in speed)
What is an example of refraction?
pencil in water
when a wave interacts with another wave
when two crests or two compressions meet
what is an example of constructive interference ?
Band room, Good seats at concert
the two waves meet and combine to form and double their amplitude
when the crest of one wave meets the trough of another wave or when a compression meets a rarefaction
What is an example of nondestructive interference?
Sound waves are ________________.
Sound waves need what to move.
Sound waves need a medium
What does not need a medium to travel?
Heat and light
How is Sound produced in Matter?
It is produced by a vibrating sound.
the ___________ the faster the speed of sound
What is the speed of light?
What is the speed of sound?
What are the four factors affecting the speed of sound?
temperature, medium, Elasticity , Density
What is the speed of sound in water?
What is the speed of sound in Iron?
How fast the particles of a substance can move and return to their original position
What is the best more elastic?
What is the least elastic?
The higher the _______ of a substance, the faster the speed of sound moves through that substance
( particles are closer together)
depends on the
and the distance from the sound source
Intensity ( loudness or volume)
What is intensity measured in?
What is our threshold for pain?
A whisper is how many decibels?
A vacuum cleaner is how many decibels?
A concert is how many dB?
a jet engine is how Many dB?
how high or low a sound is
Pitch depends on
What happens to the pitch if the frequency is high?
high frequency=higher pitch
Most people hear frequencies between ___________
The sound at frequencies above the range of human hearing
What is an example of ultrasound?
a change in pitch caused by motion of the sound source, listen or both
The Doppler Effect
What happens when the source of sound approaches?
the higher the pitch
What happens when the source of sound moves away?
the lower the pitch
when an airplane flies faster than the speed of sound, this creates a large amount of sound energy behind the plane and creates a "boom" after the pane passes by
How fast must the plane travel to reach a sonic boom?
when one object causes another object to vibrate at its own, natural frequency
What is an example of resonance?
Tuning Forks, singer breaks glass
when an object forces another object ( that it is connected to) to vibrate. This produces another sound.
What is an example of a forced vibration?
tuning fork, hanger with styrofaom
waves that can travel through a vacuum, as through matter
What is an example of an electromagnetic wave?
a packet of light energy
Light has the properties of
both particles and waves
What is the speed of light?
3.00 x 10^8 m/s
What radio waves travel better?
can be detected as heat ( night vision goggles)
excessive exposure can cause sunburn, skin cancer, etc.
rays that can see your bones
Used to kill cancer cells
transmits light ( it allows most of the light that it strikes to pass through)
What is an an example of a transparent object?
scatters light ( objects look blurry)
What is an example of a translucent object?
shower door, bathroom, window
blocks all the transmission of all light ( absorbs or reflects all light)
What is an example of a opaque object?
What is the term called when we can see all of the colors of the spectrum?
ROY G BIV
all of the frequencies of the spectrum are
all of the frequencies of the spectrum are
What happens when color is reflected?
we see that color
what happens when the color gets absorbed?
we do not see it
separates white light into all frequencies of light
What is an example of a prism?
ROY G BIV ( visible light)
red, blue, green