Chemistry: Solutions GUHS

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polar
Uneven pulling of electrons between two electroengative atoms, ex) water
non-polar
Even pulling of electrons between two electronegative atoms, ex) oil
hydrogen bond
The formation between the hydrogen atoms on one molecule and a highly electronegative atom on another
100 degrees Celsius
Boiling point of water
0 degrees Celsius
Freezing point of water
Surface tension
Surface tension: the inward force, or pull, that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
Surfactant
Interfere with H-bonding and reduce surface tension
Capillarity
Results from the competition between the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid and the attractive forces between the liquid and the tube that contains it
Specific heat
Specific heat: measures the amount of heat, in joules, needed to raise the temperature of 1g of substance by 1oC
Specific heat of water
4.18 J/g*C
solution
when one substance dissolves into another
Solvent
The dissolving material; typically present in the highest amount
Solvent
The dissolved particles
Electrolyte
A compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution
Suspension
A (heterogeneous) mixture from which particles settle out upon standing
Colloid
A heterogeneous mixture containing particles that range in size from 1nm to 1000nm
Tyndall effect
The scattering of visible light by colloidal particles
Coagulation
The clumping of particles in a colloid
Ways to speed up dissolving solids
stirring, increase temperature, increase surface area
Solubility
The solubility of a substance is the amount of solute that dissolves in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
miscible
two liquids that dissolve in each other
immiscible
two liquids that do not dissolve in each other
saturated solution
contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure
supersaturated solution
contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature
Concentration
a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
dilute solution
a solution that contains a small amount of solute
concentrated solution
contains a large amount of solute
Molarity (M)
The number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution
Ways to speed up dissolving gases
Decrease temperature, increase pressure,
Nonelectrolyte
A compound that does not conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution