Honors Bio Cumulative Final
Terms in this set (305)
What are carbohydrates also known as?
Name three types of carbohydrates
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Glucose + glucose
Maltose + H20
Glucose + fructose
Sucrose + H2O
Monosaccharide + monosaccharide
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
A molecule made by covalently bonding monomers together
Big covalently bonded molecules
What are the four types of macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Do lipids form polymers?
NO - unlike carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleic acids, they do not
Breaking down polymers
cells do this by a process called hydrolysis (water is added to split a bond)
dehydration synthesis reaction Water is removed
Glucose versus fructose
Glucose is shaped like a hexagon and fructose is shaped like a house
repelled by water
Attracted to water
Functions of proteins
Transportation in cell membrane, storage, events, cellular communication, enzymatic activity speeding up reaction
What is a protein?
A biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides it's folded and coiled into a specific structure
What are polypeptides?
Polymers of amino acids
What are rings?
Families of nitrogen bases
How many rings do purines have?
two A G
How many rings do pyrimidines have?
one C T U
What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
A nucleotide that. Contains a nitrogen base
What does a five carbon sugar and phosphate group do?
Provides instructions for synthesizing proteins and stores genetic information.
What is the structure of DNA
double helix (twisted ladder)
What is DNA is nitrogen bases?
is DNA anti parallel or parallel?
What sugar does DNA have?
What are the nitrogen bases of RNA?
What is the structure of RNA
What sugar does RNA contain?
What does DNA stand for?
What does RNA stand for?
What is a substrate?
What is the active site
Where the substrate bonds
The temperature and pH that the enzyme works the best and is most effective at is called what?
What happens if it is anything off the optimum temperature or PH
Anything past this will cause the denaturing of the protein
A specialized protein that acts as a catalyst speeding up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
What does a catalyst do?
lowers activation energy To speed up a reaction
Enzymes, are they re-usable or not
Enzymes can be reused they are not changed or used up in the process
What is activation energy?
energy needed to start a reaction
All enzymes have an optimal pH they work in, determined by their place of work.
Enzymes have an optimum pH, any pH above or below this will make the enzyme denature, True or false
As temperature increases, and some activity increases until it reaches the optimum temperature and you temperature above this will cause the enzyme activity to decrease happens because the bonds that hold the protein and it's 3-D shape denature
The ability of the enzyme to do its job can be affected by temperature pH cofactors and coenzymes, and inhibitors
Effect cofactors and coenzyme
Help substrate binds to the enzyme, help regulate the enzyme activity in a chemical reaction can be in organic no carbon or organic with Carbon
Decrease enzyme activity can be competitive or noncompetitive
Similar shape as substrate binds to active site stops enzyme from bonding there
Not shaped like substrate does not bind to active site find anywhere but active say it causes the active site to change shapes of the substrate can't bind there
Glycerol +3 fatty acid tails
Uses of triglycerides
Fat energy storage in adipose cells insulation
Curved think at double bond not as compact making a liquid at room temp not completely surrounded by H
Saturated fatty acid tails Shape
Saturated fatty acid tails
Can be compacted
Saturated fatty acid tails at room temp
Carbons have What and are completely surrounded by what
Single bonds and I completely surrounded by hydrogen
Also known as facts they are hydrophobic which equals non-polar or doesn't like water will hydrophilic likes water. A subunit of a lipid is glycerol and fatty acid tails which are made of hydrocarbon And a carboxyl group
What is the subunit of a lipid
Glycerol head and fatty acid tail
What are subtracted to self because it is Polar which creates hydrogen bonds example surface tension
4°C is the densest as water becomes a solid, if becomes less dense causing it to float this happens because the hydrogen bonds for space between the molecules
Evaporative cooling a.k.a. sweating
Maintain internal temp get rid of her Atoms and keep for once hydrogen bonds will form and to reform
Do you attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen in one molecule and a slightly negative electronegative in a different Atom
Give or take electrons do you have a full valence shell of eight electrons a.k.a. attraction of opposite charges
When Adams share give take electrons to have a complete valence shell to be stable share covalent give-and-take Ionic
Covalent bonds are formed between
Between two nonmetals
equal sharing of electrons
having a pair of equal and opposite charges
Polar results in
A polar molecule one side is positive and the other side is negative do you to electronegativity ability to attract electrons from another Atom example water
Water is attracted to a polar charged molecules
What is ATP?
ATP is chemical energy adenosine triphosphate made up of three phosphate groups and a ribose sugar or five carbon sugar
Explain how ATP is created from ADP. Write the equation
Made through dehydration synthesis. This requires energy, so it's endergoic. Equation ADP + Pi (+energy) yields ATP + H20
Explain how ATP is broken down. Include equation
ATP is broken down through hydrolysis. This breaks the ATP between the phosphate groups. This releases energy, making exogenic Equation ATP + H20 yields ADP + Pi + energy
Give examples of what type of work is the energy released by ATP is used to do
Chemical work use the energy to help at another chemical reaction this is called coupling, this breaks into ADP plus PI; the PI bonds to something, usually a protein, and changes its shape. Transport work active transport in bulk transport mechanical work movement of the cilia Chromosomes during cell division in muscular contraction
How is energy released when ATP is broken down
The phosphate groups or negatively charged, which makes them unstable; when bonds are broken, the molecule (ADP) Becomes more stable, which releases energy. The energy is not in the bond.
What is the catabolic reaction? Give three examples
Breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones. Examples, cellular respiration (aerobic) — needs oxygen anaerobic — doesn't need oxygen fermentation —Needs oxygen, but isn't getting enough
Explain redox reactions
Reduction — Edition of an electron to a molecule, usually a protein
Oxidation — Loss of an electron from a molecule, usually a glucose
Explain what transports electrons. How does this molecule obtain electrons and having the electrons affects the molecules (redox)
NAD+ Transports electrons; went to electrons and hydrogen ion are added, it becomes an NADH, the reduced form, and it carries electrons. NAD+ is the oxidize form with Noah electrons. The same thing goes for FAD and FADH2
What are the two types of ways to make ATP
Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle
Explain substrate level phosphorylation
ATP is created in this; when an enzyme removes a Pi from a molecule and bonds it to in ADP to make ATP
What is cellular respiration and where does it occur?
The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP. It is a catabolic reaction. All energy comes from the sun. Occurs in the mitochondria.
What are the parts of cellular respiration
Glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (ETC and Chemiosmosis)
Where does glycolysis occur? Is oxygen needed? Is in mitochondria needed?
Occurs in the cytosol/cytoplasm. Oxygen is not needed. Can occur in prokaryotes, so mitochondria is not needed
What is the purpose of glycolysis
To break down glucose into pyruvate and make ATP
What does glycolysis require?
Glycolysis requires glucose, 2ATP, 2NAD+
What are products of glycolysis
2 pyruvate, 2 ATP (net gain), 2 NADH
Explain the oxidation of pyruvate, step-by-step
To pyruvate are actively transported through the two transport proteins through both membranes, into the matrix of the mitochondria. They lose one carbon each in the form of CO2 and become an unknown with two carbons. This is oxidized buy NAD+ and forms NADH, and then eight to carbon acetate is formed. This bonds with CoA, Making acetyl CoA, Which has two carbons. This happens twice because there are two pyruvate.
Where does the oxidation of pyruvate occur? How many times does it occur for one glucose molecule?
It occurs twice in the matrix of the mitochondria.
What is created by the oxidation of pyruvate?
2 Acetyl CoA, 2Co2
Where does the Krebs cycle, or citric acid cycle occur? How many times does it occur for one glucose molecule
It occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria, happens twice
What is the beginning/ending molecule of the Krebs cycle
Oxaloacetate four carbon
What is created by the Krebs cycle?
6 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2 (oxaloacetate)
Explain the role of NADH in the ETC. Explain the flow
NADH delivers electrons to proteins 13 and four. Electronegativity increases from protein to protein. NADH is the carrier of electrons. It drops off higher do you electrons to protein one which is the role. Electrons go from touching one to protein three to protein 4 to oxygen. Oxygen is the final electron except or . and it will bind two Hydrogen ions where it becomes H2O. Energy is released between the proteins, and that energy is used to actively transport hydrogen ions into the matrix to the inner membrane work.
Explain the role of FADH2 in the ETC. Explain the flow.
The FADH2 has the same job as NADH. The electrons carried by FADH2 come from the Krebs cycle. They go from 2 to 3 to 4 tooxygen where they also form H2O
What is created at the end of the ETC
Six H2O and a hydrogen ion gradient a.k.a. proton motive force
Explain the process of Chemiosmosis
Hydrogen ions from the inter-membrane space diffuse through and ATP synthase, creating enough kinetic energy for an ADP + Pi To phosphorylate into ATP
What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O+30-32 ATP
What does anaerobic mean
without oxygen. Does not require oxygen. It means an organism doesn't need or use oxygen. It also has a different final electron except or. Example bacteria uses sulfate as the final electron acceptor forming H2 S instead of H2O
What are the two situations that exist for anaerobic processes to occur
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
What are the two situations that exist for anaerobic processes to occur
Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
Anaerobic respiration, explain, compared to aerobic respiration
It means an organism doesn't need or use oxygen. It also has a final electron acceptor that is different. Example bacteria uses sulphate as the final electron except or forming H2 S not H2O. Aerobic respiration needs and uses oxygen, and H2O is the final electron acceptor
Explain what happens when oxygen isn't present in an organism that is aerobic
This will cause a lack of NAD+ Which. All processes of cellular respiration, so fermentation will happen
What is the purpose of fermentation
The purpose is to keep processes of cellular respiration going, when there is no longer oxygen. It allows the regeneration of NAD+. So glycolysis can continue and ATP is made
Explain be able to draw lactic acid fermentation. What organisms use this process
The electrons from the NADH are brought to the three carbon 2 pyruvate, the three carbon 2 pyruvate then forms two lactic acid's and The NADH after dropping off the two electrons at the pyruvate, is oxidized back into NAD+. This occurs in muscle cells, bacteria, and fungi.
Explain and be able to draw alcohol fermentation
Alcohol fermentation is when the three carbon, to pyruvate, release to carbon dioxide and form two acetaldehyde Which has the two electrons from the NADH dropped off at it, from there the NADH oxidizes back into NAD+ The two acetaldehyde Then forms two ethanol. This occurs in yeast and bacteria
What is a macromolecule
A big covalently bonded molecule
What are the types of macromolecules In our body
Carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acid's
Which of these macromolecules form polymers
Carbohydrates proteins nucleic acid's and not lipid's
What is the monomer
Building block/subunit of Polymer
What is the monomer of a carbohydrate called give three examples
Monosaccharide glucose fructose galactose
What is the name of the molecule that is created when two of these monomers are bonded together three or more bonded together
What is the name of the process to build these
Do you hydration synthesis
What is the name of the process to break them apart?
What are the uses of carbohydrates
Fuel in building
Explain it to the uses and distinguish the difference is between each organism that uses them
Feel can be used for quick energy sources and a storage building is used for cell walls and Exo skeleton's
What elements are in a carbohydrate in a lipid
Carbon hydrogen and oxygen
What are the monomers of lipids
Glycerol heads in fatty acid tails
Describe the different types of fatty acid tails
Composed of a carboxyl group and hydrogen chain nonpolar. Saturated has a straight shape and is solid at room temperature can be compacted the carbons have a single bond in a completely surrounded by hydrogen. Unsaturated has at least one double bond has a bender Kinki at the double bond not as compacted mars face liquid at room temperature not completely surrounded by hydrogen
What are the different types of lipids
What are the. Components of each type of lipid
Glycerol and three fatty acid tails
What is the process used to create lipids
What elements are in proteins
Carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
Name and draw the monomer of a protein.
Draw an amino acid
What is the name of the reaction when two amino acids are bonded together draw and label this reaction.
Do you hydration synthesis to make a dipeptide and water
How was one amino acid different from another how are proteins different from one another?
Their group differs from the amino acids shape can Change a proteins function
What are the functions of a protein
speed up chemical reactions act as a catalyst/enzymes Storage seeds, egg whites, milk. Defense against viruses antibodies cellular communications receptors structural support collagen transportation hormones insulin motor proteins muscle movement
What determines the shape of a Protein? Why is it so shape important?
Shape is important for the proteins function shape is determined by the amino acid sequences
What elements are in nucleic acid
Carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus
What is the monomer for a nucleic acid draw it
Monomer is a nucleotide made of a nitrogen base five carbon sugar and phosphate group. Draw this.
What are the two types of nucleic acid's
DNA and RNA
Explain the differences between the two types of nucleic acid's.
Sugars deoxyribose sugar has one less oxygen then ribose. Ribose sugar. Nitrogen bases A=T C=G FOR RNA A=U C=G double helix for DNA single helix For RNA
Name and describe the two types of nitrogen bases
Purines have two rings (AG). Pyrimidines have one ring (TCU)
Explain what anti-parallel means. Draw an example.
To parallel strands going in opposite directions. Draw an example.
Explain with an enzyme is, what it does, and how it does it.
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts. They speed up the chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
What is activation energy? Draw a graph that shows activation energy with and without an enzyme on the same graph.
It's the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. The enzymes are not used up or changed in this process, which means that they can be reused multiple times. Draw the Graph on a blank sheet of paper
Drama label and explain all of the parts of an enzyme
Talk about how together they form and Sam substrate complex, talk about the substrate, talk about the active site on enzyme where the substrate binds, talk about the compound substrate plus enzyme yields enzyme substrate complex. And draw on a blank sheet of paper
Draw the process of an enzyme making maltose
Talk about the products of glucose plus glucose talk about our forms and How all enzymes and in Ase, glucose, and substrate maltose. Drawing a blank sheet of paper
Explain the four things that will affect enzyme activity or read the reaction. Make sure you state what the effect is and how and why the effect has this effect
Temperature as temp in creases and Sam activity increases until it reaches the optimum temperature and heat temperature above this will cause enzyme activity to decrease because the bonds that hold the proteins in shape denature PH enzymes have an optimum pH, any pH above or below this causes the enzyme to denature no graph on page 156 of the textbook. Cofactors and coenzymes help substrate binds to the enzyme, decreasing enzyme activity, can be in organic meaning it doesn't have carbon organic meaning it has carbon. Inhibitors decrease enzyme activity competitive inhibitor's have a similar shape as a substrate divine to active say and stop the enzyme from bonding there. Non-competitive inhibitor's are not shaped like the substrate and does not bind to the active site. And binds anywhere but the active site, causing the active site to change shapes of the substrate can't bind there.
What is the optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme below
Look at paper for graphs
What are the different macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids which are not a polymer, nucleic acid's
What is a polymer how was it created
Molecule made by covalently bonding monomers together
Draw and label the equation for creating a polymer
Draw and label this on a blank sheet of paper
Which of the molecules is not a polymer
Name and explain the process or reaction for creating a polymer.
Do you hydration synthesis to monomers bond to form water and a polymer
Name and explain the process or reaction for breaking down the polymer
Hydrolysis water breaks the bond between the polymer and forms to monomers
What are the elements in carbohydrates
Carbon hydrogen oxygen
What is the Monomer or subunit for carbohydrates
What are the different monosaccharides
Glucose fructose galactose
Draw glucose molecule
Draw on a separate piece of paper
What are the products were into glucose molecules are bonded together what process is this what if it is the glucose and fructose
Walter some water do you hydration synthesis sucrose
What are the products when 3or more monosaccharides are bonded together
Polysaccharide and two Waters
What are the uses of carbohydrates
Fuel and building
Explain what type of energy carbohydrates are
Carbohydrates are a quick energy source glucose. And there are used to make ATP
Explain the different ways carbohydrates are stored. Where in the organism are these molecules stored?
Animal store them as glycogen a highly branched polymer of glucose these are stored in the animals liver and muscle cells plant store them as a starch a less branched polymer of glucose
Explain the different structural molecules of carbohydrates what are they for
Cell walls and exoskeletons cell walls for plants in our cellulose polymer of glucose, and fungi/bacteria are use Chintin exoskeleton has chitin. Used by anthropoids
What is another name for cellulose in our diet? Why is it so good for us? Do we get nutritional value from it?
Fiber it is good because it keeps her blood glucose levels low fiber is not a nutrient because it isn't digested or observed by the body.
What suffix or ending do most sugars have
How do animal cells respond to each type of Tonicity
I so tonic preferred solution hypertonic Water will leave the cell in the cell will shrivel and maybe die
Hypotonic. Cell will swell and eventually lyse or burst
How do plant cells respond to each type of Tonicity
Isotonic lax turgor pressure, so they are a limp/wilted/flaccid Turgor pressure is the pressure of the cell wall exerts on the water coming into the cell plasma membrane pushes against cell wall hypertonic worst for plant, plasmolysis happens which is when the plasma membrane separates from the cell wall. Hypotonic best for a plant
What does facilitated diffusion
When the protein is needed for polar molecules or ions to go through the molecule
Explain the types of proteins that help with facilitated diffusion
Channel proteins carrier proteins and gated ion channels protein molecule has to bind to Ray's liquor. Drop pictures of each on blank paper.
Explain active transport
Molecules/ions are pumped from a low concentration to high concentration against the concentration gradient so it requires energy. They go through protein pump. And example would be the ninth Na+ K + ion pump. H plus pump
Explain endocytosis in general
When you're taking in nutrients
Explain the different types of endocytosis
Phagocytosis when the cell engulfs around a particle PinocytosisExtracellular fluid is engulfed by the cell, to get the molecules dissolved, doesn't want the fluid. Receptor mediated endocytosis a specific molecule binds to receptors on the plasma membrane, which conjugate into one area makes a coded pit and endocytosis occurs there. Draw picture of each
To get rid of waste the vesicle fuses With the plasma membrane and releases the content into the extracellular fluid
What are the characteristics of living things? Nonliving things?
Living made the cells, response to stimulus, reproduces, they move, use/require energy, grow, adapt to Environment, evolve, maintain homeostasis, die nonliving or never living are the opposite of living
What is the cell theory?
All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cells
What type of microscope do we use? How do you find the total magnification of the microscope?
Light microscope multiply ocular lens by the objective lens
What is the main difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Euks are animal and plant cells and pokes are bacteria cells
Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Eukaryotes are larger 100 to 10 UM, different shape, younger, more involved/complex, have mitochondria, Lysosome Golgi Prokaryotes are smaller one through 10 UM different shape, older, less involved/complex, has capsule, nucleotide, firmembrae
Compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells
Plant have cell walls chloroplast central vacuole large rectangle larger 100 UM animal lysosomes flagella centrosomes with centrioles smaller 10 UM both plasma membrane nucleus ribosomes
What does the plasma membrane do
It regulates what goes in and out of the cell
What type of surface area to volume ratio must it have to do this well why
Help me I want death
Why do cells have villi or microvilli
It's a banding on the outside of the membrane and microvilli are smaller. They have these to increase surface area and make this cell have more area
What is the endomembrane system?
This is the phospholipid by layer of eukaryotes nuclear envelope pardon the nucleus ER rough and smooth Golgi vacuoles plant cells storage of water vesicles
Draw and label the parts of the nucleus
On the blank sheet of paper
What is the function of the nucleus and nucleolus
Nucleus stores DNA into it to Terry information has info to make proteins nucleolus subunit of the ribosomes synthesizes or makes ribosomes
What is the function of the rough ER
rough ER site of protein synthesis and creates phospholipids that will become the plasma membraneSmooth ER synthesizes lipids phospholipid cholesterol oils stores see a 2+ calcium ion detoxifies drugs and poisons in the liver cell has more smooth ER then other Oregon metabolizes carbohydrates
What is the function of ribosomes where are they located
They synthesize proteins can be bound to the rough ER or nuclear envelope or I'm bound a.k.a. free in the cytoplasm proteins for cell
What is the function of the Golgi
Sorts modifies and packages proteins and then it exports them
What is the function of a vesicle
Help transport export the proteins out of the Golgi
What the function of the mitochondria? Draw and label it
It's a stage of cellular respiration chemical reaction that breaks down glucose and ATP, draw the mitochondrial structure
What is the function of the chloroplast draw and label it
So the photosynthesis CO2 and H2O used to form glucose Draw it
Explain the Endo symbiotic theory
The ancestor of a eukaryotic cell in golfed form of endocytosis and oxygen using a non-photosynthetic prokaryotes sell forming a mutualistic Relationship with it and forming the mitochondria this new selling golf the photosynthetic pro Carriott Excel and formed a mutualistic relationship forming with the chloroplast
What is the evidence supporting the Endo symbiotic theory
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a double membrane both have their own DNA both DNAs are circular both grow and divide reproduce independent from self both have ribosomes which means they make their own proteins both are the same size as a prokaryotes 1 to 5 UM mitochondria is one chloroplast is five
What Is the fluid Mosaic model
Shows the movement of the plasma membrane movement of the plasma membrane in the structures mosaic
What structures make the plasma membrane mosaic
Phospholipids and proteins cholesterol carbohydrates
Explain each of the structures above in detail
Phospholipids glycerol to fatty acid tails hydrophilic head hydrophobic tails fast beat proteins per Friel found to the surface of the membrane either inside or outside integral blinds inside the plasma membrane not all the way through transmembrane goes through the lipid bilayer cholesteryl lipid with for fused to see rings that go between fatty acid tails carbohydrates glycolipid/glycoprotein equals glycol equals carbohydrate
What affects the fluidity of the plasma membrane
Type a fatty acid tails sat equals less fluid on unsat equals more fluid
How would you sell respond if the temperature increased
If the temp increase his fluid did it increases because Kinetic energymovement increases
Why would you cell respond this way
It wants to maintain fluid did he do this by adding cholesterol increased number of saturated by the acid tails only if temperature increases if temperature decreases decreased number of saturated fatty acid tails decreased number of unsaturated fatty acid tails if only temperature increases if temperature decreases increased number of unsaturated fatty acid tails
The movement of cells/molecules from high concentration to low concentration until it reaches equilibrium. Is a form of passive transport, so it does not require energy from the cell
Explain the diffusion of non-polar molecules
They do not go through the lipid bilayer easily because the non-polar fatty acid tails stop them and they have to go through a transport protein
What determines the direction of diffusion
It is determined by the concentration goes from high concentration in one area to an equal concentration in all areas
The movement of water through a membrane with the help of the protein I could pour in from a higher water concentration to a lower water concentration until equilibrium is reached
Explain Tonicity. And the three different types of it
Gaining/losing water by yourself isotonic concentration of water of the solution equals the concentration of water in the cell this is at equilibrium hypertonic hyper means more which means more solute which means less free water the solution will have a lower water concentration then the cell hypotonic hypo means less which means less solute which means the last free water the solution has a higher water concentration then in the cell
Transcription of a gene
Upstream of the transcription unit and contains the TATA box and the start point
Where are in a polymerase two places the first complementary RNA nucleotide to the DNA template strand
Segment of the gene that is transcribed
Termination sequence that signals for the end
Where does transcription occur?
inside the nucleus
Why is mRNA created in what direction does DNA hold
DNA hold the direction for creating the protein and ribosomes that are the organelle that synthesize the polypeptide.DNA cannot leave the nucleus, so mRNAs created to take the message out of the nucleus to the ribosome.
What are the three parts of transcription
initiation, elongation, termination
Begins when a transcription factor recognizes and bonds to the TATA Box. Other transcription factors bind to the initial transcription factor RNA polymerase to binds to the transcription factor complex creating the transcription initiation complex
Begins when RNA Polymerase to add is the first complementary RNA nucleotides at the start point in the five prime to three prime direction.
What does complementary mean
If the DNA is A then mRNA is a U, T-A, G-C etc
RNA and DNA nucleotide differences
RNA has uracil and DNA has thymine
How long does elongation continue for
Until termination is reached
Occurs when RNA polymerase read the polyadenylation signal in the DNA which is Transcribed into the sequence AAUAAA
What happens 10 to 35 nucleotides after the sequence
A protein Cleaves the RNA polymerase two from the mRNA strand
What is pre-mRNA the result of
Transcription. It is not allowed to leave the nucleus
What is added
A GTP Is added to the five prime side of the pre-mRNA called the five prime Cap. 50 to 250 Adenine nucleotides Are added to the three prime side and it's called the poly a tail.
What do these modifications create
Linear mRNA strand
What do the modifications allow mRNA to do
Leave the nucleus protect it from degradation by enzymes in the cytoplasm and helps the mRNA bind to the mRNA branding site of the small ribosomal subunit
What does translation involve
The small and large ribosomal subunits
Subunits have a 3-D shape that is created when nucleotides hydrogen bond to themselves
Where ribosomal subunits created
In the nucleolus
What does a small ribosomal subunits have
The mRNA binding site
What do large ribosomal subunits have
Three sites, the E site (exit site) the P site and the A site
tRNA shape and structure
TRNA has a 3-D shape like ET with the amino acid binding site on top and the anti-codon on the bottom
What is the anti-codon of tRNA complementary to
The mRNA codon
What are the three parts of translation
Initiation elongation and termination
Begins when the tRNA with the anti-codon UAC and caring the amino acid MET binds to the small ribosomal subunit
What happens next
The mRNA binds to the small ribosomal subunits tRNA complex and moves along the mRNA until the anti-codon hydrogen bonds to the start codon AUG Which sets the reading frame
The large ribosomal subunits binds to the small ribosomal subunits so that the tRNA is in the P site this creates the translation initiation complex
Begins when the tRNA that has the anti-codon complementary to the mRNA codon carry the correct amino acid binds to the A site
What happens to the bond between the tRNA and the amino acid in the P site
What does the ribosome catalyze
The formation of a peptide bond between the amino acid in the P site and the amino acid in the A site
What happens to the ribosome
It translocates by one coat on this puts the tRNA with no amino acid in the east side the tRNA with the chain is in the P site and the A site is open this continues until termination begins
Begins when the ribosome translocates so that a stop codon is beneath the A site
What this signals for
This signals for a release factor which is a protein in the shape of a tRNA to enter the E site and bind to the stop codon. This signals for a water To hydrolyze the bond between the polypeptide chain in the tRNA in the P site releasing the polypeptide from the ribosome.
What happens last
The subunits breakapart and the mRNA is released
Point. In the genetic info DNA
Change in one nucleotide pair in the DNA
A nucleotide pair gets replaced by a different pair
Silent mutation missense mutation nonsense mutation
The code and created still codes for the same amino acid
The codon created is different than the original codon can be only a slight change to a huge Change in the protein.
Example of missense mutation
Sickle cell anemia. An A is changed to a T which causes a glu to be a Val this completely changes the shape of the red blood cell toa crescent sickle shape
The codon created is a stop codon this causes the protein to be shorter
One nucleotide pair is added
One nuclear tide Paris or moved
What is the result of insertation/deletion
A frameshift mutation
The reading frame of mRNA is altered. This causes the protein to have a different amino acid sequence after the insertation /Deletion. Can cause a completely different protein to be made
Causes of mutations
Can be chemical or physical. Errors during DNA replication spontaneous mutation's UV radiation thymine dimers x-rays Carcinogen which is a Mia did you and that can cause cancer cigarette smoke which is physical and nuclear analogues which is chemical
The traits of the parents mix to create offspring with a trait in the middle
Parents pass down discrete gene idea units genes that are not altered or blended
Mendel's first experiment what did he use
Why were pea plants good
They grow fast and reproduce fast had tons of kids (seeds) he could control fertilization have lots of variation- characters flower color pea color height only two trait options
Recite Mendel's first experiment
Use book to check
What conclusion did Mendel draw from his first experiment
That the recessive trait does not change and stays as a unit. Traits can be masked, but never go away.
What is the law of segregation
Chromosomes or alleles separate during gamete synthesis which is meiosis.
What is Mendels model
Having different sequences of DNA in our Jean is what allows us to have different traits. We have two copies for each trait one for my mom and one for my dad. If an organism is heterozygous the dominant trait determines the appearance not to recessive
autosomal genetic disorders dominant
Huntington's disease achondroplasia polydactyl cateracts
autosomal genetic disorders recessive
Albinism cystic fibrosis sickle cell Tay-Sachs PKU deafness
Sex linked traits
A trait that occurs on the sex chromosomes which is the last pair and a karyote Males are more likely to have them because they only have one copy of an X chromosome
autosomal recessive Causes the enzyme that breaks down lipids not to function correctly so lipids build up in the brain cells causes seizures blindness muscle degration brain functioning goes down and then death
Sex determination and birds fish and some insects
ZW system males ZZ and females or ZW the female determines the sex
Sex determination humans
XY system the mail is XY and the female is XX so the mail determines the sex females only get the X or males give X or Y if an X from the sperm fertilizes the egg the child will be female opposite from Male
X in activation, and females one X chromosome is super condensed which inactivates it because no protein synthesis can occur on it. This is called bar body and example would be a tortoiseshell cat if black is so minute over orange, but the black is an activated partially in the orange is in that activated partially then the cat will be partially orange and partially black
The process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specific genes on specific chromosomes.
One gene that has multiple phenotypes
Sex determination roaches and grasshoppers
The XO system female has two exes mail has one ask a female will give one ex well I mail gives an ax or nothing the mail determines the sex
Recite mendel second experiment
What was the conclusion drawn from mendel second experiment
Alleles for each trait segregate independently during meiosis or gamete formation This is the law of independent assortment it occurs in metaphase one
Absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes recessive
autosomal recessive European dissent the CI ion transport protein does not function which leads to an accumulation of CI Ions outside of the cell because they can't go inside which leads to sticky mucus lungs have a hard time breathing and get bacterial infections which is in example would be bronchitis, the digestive system, pancreas, intestines
African dissent a substitution in a single nucleotide pair point T toA glu to Val In hemoglobin cause the shape of the red blood cell to go from the round shape to a sickle shape
Recite Morgan's first experiment
Use the book
Recite Morgan's second experiment
Use the book
Enzyme that breaks down amino acids doesn't function causing this to be a toxic level in blood leads to brain damage intellectually
The failure of homologus chromosomes her sister chromatid to separate properly during cell division
Caused by an errand cell division called nondisjunction nondisjunction results in an embryo with three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual too. Prior to conception a pair of the 21st chromosomes is either the sperm or the egg fails to separate. Eyes that's why upward short stature and a short neck.
XXY, less body hair, non-disjunction leads to an extra X chromosome, breast in large meant, a genetic condition in which a Mail is born with an extra copy of the X from them
Genes are located on specific chromosomes are the specific location or Locus
Chromosomes are what go through independent assortment and segregation. Evidence Morgan's experiment
How often crossing over occurs
Total number of offspring 1% recombination equals one map unit
Explain Darwins ideas of evolution and the mechanics of it
Darwin, set his ideas on paper in 1844, when he wrote a long essay on descent with modification and its underlying mechanism, natural selection. Decent with modification is simply the passing of traits from parent to offspring and this concept is one of the fundamental ideas behind Charles Darwins theory of evolution. You pass on to your children in a process known as heredity. The unit of heredity is a gene. A gene is like a blueprint for how the person will be. However if your child does not get your exact blueprint, they are clones of you, rather your jeans combine with your partners jeans and small. Changes and mutations may occur along the way. If you have multiple children, you know there's a different mix of jeans that are combined for each child. This means that the gene pool is continuously adjusting based on who is reproducing and how their genes are combined during the production of offspring. Over extended periods of time, evolution takes place. It's underlying mechanism, natural selection, is the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment 10 to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expanded by Charles Darwin in this now believe to be the main process that brings about evolution.
Name and explain all the evidence for evolution
The evidence is for evolution are directly observing evolution homologous structures, vestigial structures, analogous structures, Bio geography, embryology, and molecular homologues. Explain each.
Explain directly observing evolution
Two examples of directly observing evolution are soapberry bug and drug resistant S. Aureas. The Soapberry bug eat seeds of the balloon vine fruit (circular) And uses beaks to access seeds. The best adapted soapberry bugs are the bugs with a beak length that is the same as the distance from the skin to the seed of the fruit. When the population of balloon vine fruit declines, and the golden rain tree population increases, (The golden Raintree have fruit with seeds that are closer to the skin) The best adapted bugs then, are those with shorter beaks compared to those that ate balloon fruit seeds.
Explain homologous structures
Structures that organisms have that look similar, but have different functions. And example of this would be bones in the forelimbs of humans, bats, cats, Whales, and alligators. This is because they have a common ancestor.
explain vestigial structures
Structures that the Current organism has, but it doesn't serve a useful function. It was useful for their ancestor. Examples would be the tailbone and the appendix. Also the hip bone in Whales and snakes.
explain analogous structures
Structures that are similar in shape and function but are not due to common ancestry. Examples would be a moth, a bird, and a bat.
One species is selected by continental Drift which alters the environment leading to the two species evolving differently.
The study of embryos. At some stage in the embryonic development all embryos look similar.
Explain molecular homologs
Amino acid sequence of a protein. DNA sequence of a gene.
What Hardy Weinberg conditions directly affect allele frequency's?
Natural selection, genetic drift, bottleneck effect, founder effect, and gene flow.
Explain natural selection
Those that are best adapted to the environment live longer and produce more offspring than those that are not. Which means that more of their alleles go into the gene pool which causes the frequency of the beneficial olio to go up in the non-beneficial allele to go down.
Genetic drift explain
A random chance event causes the allele frequency to change in a small population.
Founder effect explain
When a group of individuals become isolated from the main population and they have two different allele frequency's.
A random chance event or disaster, that causes a large decrease in the population which causes genetic variation to go down. Example prairie chickens.
Explain Gene flow
Movement of alleles throughout the population. Coming in. If more dominant's come in, allele frequency's become more. Increased, if more recessive come in allele frequency's go down.
Explain how to find a population is evolving
How do tectonic plates move and what can each movement cause
Convergent plates come together, and divergent plates move away from each other. Transforming plates slide past eachother.
What can a divergent movement of tectonic plates cause
When plates are divergent, it means that they are moving away from each other. Along divergent boundaries, or rifts, earthquakes often occur. Beneath the divergent boundaries or rift, magma oozes Up to the mantle, and into the gap between the tectonic plates, hardening into solid rock. Forming new crust, on the torn edged of the plates. Once on the mantle, the solid rock the magma hardens into is basalt, The rock that makes up the oceanic crust, what is thinner and denser than the less dense and thicker continental crust. Therefore, at divergent boundaries, oceanic crust is formed.
What can A convergent movement of tectonic plates cause
When plates are convergent, it means that they are moving towards each other. Along convergent boundaries, The edges of the plates are either pushed up into mountain ranges. Or down into A deep trench. If one of the colliding plates is topped with oceanic crust, it is forced down into the mantle where it begins to melt. Magma rises into and through the other plate, solidifying into new crust. Magma formed from melting plates solidifies into granite, a light colored, low-density rock that makes up the continents. Thus at convergent boundaries, continental crust, made of granite, is created, and oceanic crust is destroyed.
What can A transforming movement cause
When plates are transforming, it means they are sliding past eachother. Two plates sliding past each other forms a transform plate boundary. Natural or human-made structures that cross a transform boundary are offset—split into pieces and carried in opposite directions. Rocks that line the boundary are pulverized as the plates grind along, creating a linear fault valley or undersea canyon. As the plates alternately jam and jump against each other, earthquakes rattle through a wide boundary zone. In contrast to convergent and divergent boundaries, no magma is formed. Thus, crust is cracked and broken at transform margins, but is not created or destroyed.
division of the nucleus
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