four kinds of reactions
addition, elmination, substitution, and rearrangement
two reactants create one product
one reactant creates two products
two reactants create two new products
one reactant reorganizes to produce an isomeric product
description of how a reaction occurs
two kinds of mechanisms
radical and polar
caused by the attractive interaction between a nucleophile (electron-rich) and an electrophile (electron-poor)
the nucleophile donates a pair of electrons to the electrophile, forming a bond
indicate electron movement from the nucleophile to the electrophile
a bond is formed when each reactant donates one electron; less common
Energy changes during a reaction involve
rates (how fast it happens) and equilibria (how much the reaction occurs)
free energy change (deltaG)
deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS; determines the position of a chemical equilibrium
deltaH; corresponds to the net change in strength of chemical bonds broken and formed during the reaction
deltaS; corresponds to the change in the amoutn of randomness during the reaction
reactions that have negative values of deltaG release energy and have favorable equilibria
reactions that have positive values of deltaG gain energy and have unfavorable equilibria
activated complex occuring that the highest-energy point of a reaction
the energy needed by reactants to reach the transistion state
the higher the activation energy
the slower the reaction
species that forms at an energy minimum between steps
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