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chapter 5...

four kinds of reactions

addition, elmination, substitution, and rearrangement


two reactants create one product


one reactant creates two products


two reactants create two new products


one reactant reorganizes to produce an isomeric product


description of how a reaction occurs

two kinds of mechanisms

radical and polar


caused by the attractive interaction between a nucleophile (electron-rich) and an electrophile (electron-poor)

polar contd

the nucleophile donates a pair of electrons to the electrophile, forming a bond

curved arrows

indicate electron movement from the nucleophile to the electrophile


a bond is formed when each reactant donates one electron; less common

Energy changes during a reaction involve

rates (how fast it happens) and equilibria (how much the reaction occurs)

free energy change (deltaG)

deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS; determines the position of a chemical equilibrium


deltaH; corresponds to the net change in strength of chemical bonds broken and formed during the reaction


deltaS; corresponds to the change in the amoutn of randomness during the reaction


reactions that have negative values of deltaG release energy and have favorable equilibria


reactions that have positive values of deltaG gain energy and have unfavorable equilibria

Transition state

activated complex occuring that the highest-energy point of a reaction

Activation energy

the energy needed by reactants to reach the transistion state

the higher the activation energy

the slower the reaction

reaction intermediate

species that forms at an energy minimum between steps

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