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caused by the attractive interaction between a nucleophile (electron-rich) and an electrophile (electron-poor)
Energy changes during a reaction involve
rates (how fast it happens) and equilibria (how much the reaction occurs)
free energy change (deltaG)
deltaG = deltaH - TdeltaS; determines the position of a chemical equilibrium
deltaH; corresponds to the net change in strength of chemical bonds broken and formed during the reaction
reactions that have negative values of deltaG release energy and have favorable equilibria
reactions that have positive values of deltaG gain energy and have unfavorable equilibria
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